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Of Quality and Manner.

tHuttamente, justly
A earalcidni, a straddle
A cavdllo, on horseback
A piedi, on foot
Inginocchidni, upon one'a knees
A pdco a piko, little by little
Di mala vdglia, unwillingly
A'lla, ttord'tta, at random
Temerariamente, rashly
Bene, well
Male, badly
Carpmie, upon all fours
Eel bello, addgio, softly, gently
Per forts, mal volentieri, eolle
cattiva, against one's will
A edso, by chance
A mente, by heart
Con fre'tta, hastily
A spron battito, full speed
Con arte, artfully
A tetiti'me, groping along
AW indietro, backward
Con ragtime, rightly
Cdlle bw'ine, con tutlo ii eudre,
a biion grddo, per amdre,
A briglia seiolla, at full sp.ed
A cdso pensuta, wilfully
A villa, in sight
Da parte a parte, da bdnda a

bdnda, through
In diibbio, in doubt
In tospeso, in suspense
Da senno, da dovvero, daddowe-

ro, in good earnest
Eudr di luogo, unseasonably
A dirdtft Idgrime, bitterly
A priiva, in emulation
Smisuratamente, beyond mea-

AgevolmMe, easily

Amicherolmente, amicably

Supfno, on one's back

Tacitnmeiile, silently

Mirabilmenle, a maraviglia, admimbly

Per il dritto, the right way

Per it rovetcio, the wrong side outward

Accortamt'-nie, tagacemente, cunningly

Senza la sapiita, unknowingly


Malgrddo mio, in spite of me

Of Affirmation.

Di ticuro, ticurame'nte, surely
In rerttd, in truth
Davvero, terame'nte, truly
Certamente, di ctrto, per

Affi, in faith
Si, J—

Si in veritd, yes, indeed
Nbn »' e dubbio, non v' ha dub-
bio, there is no doubt
Im coscienz.1, on my conscience

Senza dubbio, without doubt
Senza fullo, without fail

Of Negation.

N", no or not

Affdtto, auolutame'nte no, by no

Jfoi, never
Del titto, not at all
Niente affdtto, not at all

Of Doubt.

Forte, perhaps

Potrebhe ddrti, it might be

Pud ddrsi, pud essere, it may be

Of Comparison.

Piu, more

Meno, less

Cimie, as or like

Siecime, as

A guisa, a mddo, like

Cosi, so or thus

Via pro, riappiu. tie piu, riep

piu. assdi piu, slill more Via meno, rie meno, audi meno,

much less
Piu tittt, piuttdsto, rather

Of Interrogation.

Qndn'o, how much
Cdtnc, how
Perche no, why not
Perchi, why
Chi, what"
Qudndo, when
Dove, where.

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Some participles are used sometimes as verbal adjectives j thus mirado means, as a participle, beheld, and as an adjective, considerate; leido means, as a participle, read, and as an adjective, book-learned; partido means divided, and liberal; sabido means known, and well-informed. In all such cases the student will find the word, in his Spanish dictionary, defined as an adjective. He will be able, from the sense of the context, to determine whether to employ it as a participle or adjective, just as in English he would know which is the adjective and which the participle in the sentences, "a known event," and "a person whom he has known."

Some changes have taken place in the verb-ending of the second person plural in all the tenses and conjugations. This anciently had its termination in dee; as, amades, amdbades, amdstedet, amare'des, amides, etc., for amais, amdbait, amditeit, amariis, ameit.

Soy, day, toy, soil, caigo, oigo, valgo, cupo, hubo, pmo, etc., were formerly so, do, to, tides, cayo, oyo, ralo, eopo, ovo, poso.

With all modern Spanish writers the guttural x is changed into j; as, dijo, dijeron, dijera, produjc, produjeron, instead of dixo, dixeron, dixera, produxo, produxeron. The pronunciation is the same in both cases.


Adverbs are either primitive or derivative: the primitive being those which are simple or uncompounded of any other word, such as no, not; ya, already; hoy, to-day; alii, yonder; and the derivative, those that are formed from other words (chiefly adjectives, participles, or other adverbs) by the addition of mente; as, brevementc, con/usamente, ciertamente.

The Spanish language, like the English, contains numerous terms composed of more than one word, and used adverbially, hence called adverbial phrases; ns, por cierto, for certain ; por lo comun, in general; de un modo, in such manner.


Conjugations are simple; as, y, and; d, or; que, that; si, if; M, nor j porque, because; como, as; tuns, but; pero, but: or conjunctire phrases; as, eon tal de que, provided that; puet que, since ; para que, in order that; & Jin de que, to the end that.

Toe conjunction y is changed into i when it comes before a word beginning with i or hi; as, lot lengumt E*paiiclu e Ingiesa, the Spanish and English languages; madre i Itija, mother and daughter.

The conjunction d is changed into i when it comes before a word beginning with o; as, laere u obk'a, sealing wax or afer.


Prepositions are simple; as, con, with [ de, of j and compound; as, & pesar de, in spite of; eota de, about, the matter of; para con, as to; por cntre, through.

The following list comprehends the principal simple prepositions in Spanish :—

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Prepositions do not always correspond in Spanish and in English; that is, de is not always to be translated of, or 6. by to, etc. ; as,

Los valla abundan de triffo, the valleys abound with wheat. Ella pide per ion & Dios, she asks pardon from God.


The interjections are simple and compound; as, ;ah! oh, / ehito! hush; and / probre de mi madre! O my poor mother!

The following list comprehends the principal simple interjections :—

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Ah, ah!
Ay, ah! alas!
Ce, here! go on ■
Ckito, chiton, hush! silence!
Ea, ha! go on! good!
./■;.', see! behold! lo!

OF THE ARTICLE. The articles are not always employed in Spanish in the same manner as they are in English. The following rules will illustrate this observation.


The definite article is to be used before all common nouns taken in a general sense, and in the whole extent of their signification; as,

El odio levanta reneillas, hatred excites 6trife.
La caridad es paciente, charity is patient.
Los hombres son mortales, men are mortal.

Here odio, cafidad, and hombres are taken in a general sense, meaning all hatred, all charity, all men.

If the noun be not taken in a general sense, that is, if the wbole of it be not meant, the article is not used; as,

Hoe: buen iicmpo, it is good weather.
Tiene envidia, he-has envy.

Here tiempo and envidia are designed to express only some portion of weather and envy, meaning some good weather, gome envy.

The definite article is used before proper names of countries, states, and days of the week; as,

La Frdncia es un hermoso pais, France is a beautiful country. Juan volverd el Mdrtes, John will-return Tuesday.

If the name of the country, state, or region be preceded by a preposition, or take its name from its capital city, the article is generally omitted; as,

Yene'cia dubi leyes d los monarcos de Europa, Venice gave laws to the monarchs of Europe. The definite article is to be used before numerals indicating the day of the month or the hour of the day; as,

El scis dt Encro, the sixth (six) of January. A.' las tres dc la tarde, at three o'clock in (of) the afternoon. The definite article is used before nouns indicating the rank, office, profession, or titles of persons when they are spoken of (but not when they are addressed); as, El General Brown es valiente. General Brown is brave. El Senor De Forest time dos hijas, Mr. De Forest has two daughters.

La Seiiora Tranor no es prudente, Mrs. Tranor is not prudent.

The definite article (and not the indefinite, as in English) is used before nouns signifying a certain weight, measure, size, quantity or number, when preceded by the price; a

A tres duros la libra, at three A side pesos el tomo, at seven

dollars a (the) pound. dollars a (the) volume

A dos pesos la vara, at two A tres reales la pieza, at three

dollars a (the) yard. reals a (the) piece.

A razon de diez duros el mes, A. cuatro pesos cl par, at four

at (the) rate of ten dollars dollars a (the) pair.

■ (the) month.

Instead of the definite article, the preposition per may be used after the price; thus we can say, d tres duros la libra, at three dollars the yard, or d tres duros por libra, at three dollars per yard.


The definite article is omitted sometimes in Spanish where it would not be omitted in English, as in the following cases.

The definite article is not used before a noun which denotes relationship or kindred of another noun, when a verb comes between them; as,

Maria es hermana de Juana, Mary is the sister of Jane.
Pablo es hijo deljxuz, Paul is the son of-the judge.

The definite article is not used before nouns in apposition;

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The definite article is not used before numerical adjectives when they denote order or succession; as,

Tomo scgundo, pdyina sexto, volume the second, page the sixth. Enrique octavo, Henry the Eighth.

The cardinal numbers (and not the ordinal) are generally used when the number expressing the order or succession exceeds nine; thus, Carlos doce," Charles the Tenth" (literally "Charles Ten"), and not Curios duodecimo; tomo trcce, "volume •Hrteen," and not tomo lUcimotercio, "volume thirteenth."

The titles of books, essays, chapters or extracts, and the names of periodicals, do not generally take the definite article before them (except when spoken of); as,

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not used in the title of a book,

the best Spanish Authors.

M6dio peso, half a dollar.
En tal tiempo, in such a time.

Tres alios y medio, three years and a half.

The indefinite article chapter, or essay; as,

Coleeeion de lot mejores Antores
Espanoles, A Selection of

The indefinite article is not used before a noun in an ejaculatory phrase; as,

I Que idea.' ;Que desgnicia! what an idea! what a misfortune!

The indefinite article is not used between an adjective and its noun; as,

Tan hermosa hya, so beautiful a daughter.

The indefinite article is not used before the words medio, a half; eien or cicnto, a hundred; and mil, a thousand; as,

Cien hombres, a hundred men. | Dia y medio, a day and a half.

The indefinite article is not used after algo, something, or ttada, nothing, followed by the preposition de; as,

Pedro tiene algo de pocla, Peter is something of a poet.


The indefinite article can be used before (but not after) tal, "such ;'* as,

Tenemos tin tal Pontifice, we-have a such High-Priest.

The infinitive mood, being used in Spanish as a noun with n preposition before it, in the suine manner that the present participle is in English, can take the masculine definite article before it; as, «

El mitrattirar de las funics, the { Al ver el arbol, on seeing the murmuring of the foun- I tree, tains.;

The definite article is used before the adverbs mas, more, and menos, less, to express the superlative degree of comparison; as,

Maria, es la mas hermosa dc beautiful of the women.

las mugcres, Mary is the most

The article is generally to be repeated before nouns which immediaiely follow each other, especially if they do not agree in gender; as,

La pri'driieia y cl valor del rcy, the prudence and the valour of the king.

The learner will find many exceptions to the above rule in the best Spanish writers, 'i'ne article must always be repeated in such tu*eB when each noun is designed to be emphatic. When the word ioilo, all, sums up the several nouns, the article is not generally used before any of the nouns; as, Espanolcs, Fr-imr-ses, Inghses, y Americanos, todos son mortales, Spaniards, Frenchmen, Englishmen, and Americans, all are mortal.

The article is omitted in Spanish, as in English, before nouns taken in a partitive sense; as,

El carpinttro tiene diricro, the carpenter has money.

In the above example, it is meant that the carpenter has a portion of money, or some monuy. When the word some is to be expressed, algwio in the singular, and algunos or vnos in the

plural, is used; as algun idia, some idea; alguna eaverna, some cavern; algunos libros, some books; Unas senoras, some ladies.

Before a singular noun, denoting something to eat or drinkthe word some is expressed in Spanish by un poco dc, a littlo of; as, dime wn poco de leche, ive me me some milk.

When in English some or any is used before a singular noun in an interrogative or negative sentence, in Spanish it is usually omitted, especially before nouns meaning something to eat or drink; as, ,' toma vmd. azucar? do you take any sugar? f tiene rind, tazas? have you any cups? i tiene vmd, algunos platillos.' have you any saucers? no tengo flauta, Ihave not any flute; no (iciie hatha, he-has not any axe.



Augmentative nouns arc such as are increased, in the extent of their signification, by the terminations on, ona, azo, aza, ote; thus the words dago, dagger: cwhara, spoon; fraile, friar; goto, cat; manga, sleeve; mugcr, woman; J'rente, forehead, can be rendered augmentative: as dagon, large dagger; cucharon, large spoon, i.e. a ladle ; /ration, targe friar; ga'.azo, large cat; mangotc, large sleeve; mugerona, large woman; \jrentaza, broad forehead.

Diminutive nouns are such as are decreased, in the signification of their primitives, by the terminations ico, tea, (jo, eja, ito, ita, eto, eta, illo, ilia, uelo, uela; thus, fraile, friar; capilla, chapel; cachara, spoon; bate!, boat, can be rendered diminutive; as, frailecico, frailtxito, frailezuelo, a little friar; capillcja, capillita, capitleta, small chapel; cucharica, cucharita, cueharcta, cucharillo, small spoon; batelico, batelejo, bateli'.o, battlillo, little boat. The terminations uelo generally, and illo also sometimes, express contempt; as hombre, man; hornbreeudo or lwmbrtcillo, an insiguineant or contemptible little fellow.

Adjectives are also frequently found used in a diminutive sense; as, poco, little ; poquiUo, poquitieo, poquito, very little.

There is also a kind of nouns composed of the name of some instrument or object and one of the terminations azo, aza, ada, the compound word including in its meaning both the instrument and some effect produced by it; as, dardo, a dart, dardada, a blow given with a dart; cuchara, a spoon, cuchaiaio, a blow with a spoon; pluma, a pen, plumada, a dash or stroke with a pen; mono, the hand, nw not azo or mamtado, a blow with the hand; aldabu, a knouker, aldahada, a rap with the knocker, and aldabax, a violent rap with the knocker.

When a noun with a singular termination denotes several persons orj things, it is called a collective noun, or noun of multitude; as, turbo, a crowd; nacada, a drove of cows.

The ordinary titles of respect corresponding to Mr. or Esq. in English are in Spanish Seiior and Don; and those corresponding to Madum and Mrs. are Seftora and Dona J and Miss, Senorila. Don and Dona never take the article before them, and can be used before Christian names onry. Seiior and Don are often used together before the Christian name. The following examples will show the manner in which these words are used:

Al Seiior Juan Harper, to Mr.

John Harper. Los Siiiores Don Juan Millon y

l>on Pablo Surret, Messrs.

John Millon and Paul


Siiiores Riggs y Tigys, Messrs. Hugs snd Tiggs. ana siila a Dona Sarah Jtay, give a chair to Mrs. Sarah Ray.

Los Da

El Seiior Ltiake es Americano,

Mr. Blake is an American. Don Diego Ticknor, me aiegro

Muclio de verle, Mr. James

Ticknor, .1 am very glad

to see you.
El Sriior Ray j I.a Senora Ray,

Mr. Kay; Mr*.*Ray.
El Seiior Carlos Mason, Master

Charles Mason.
LaSi iioritaMason, Miss Mason.
Al Seiior Don Diego Harper, to

James Harper, Esq.

The article ;is never used before these titles, except when the persons are spoken of; of course, when persons are addressed, the proper title only is used; as,

Buenas tardes tenga vmd., Senorila Wilson, I wish you a good evening, Miss Wilson

Sen or, sinora, senorita, senores, scnorai, senoritas, also axe used for sir, madam, miss, gentlemen, ladies, young ladies, respectively; as,

Bumos dias, tenor, good morn- I Buenos nocltet, senores, good ing, sir. ] night, gentlemen.

SeHor and senora are used as an additional mark of before the name of a relative in such cases as the following

l Qtmo esld tu senor htrmano? I I Cbmo aid su se&ora viadrc? how is your brother i | how is your mother?



The adjective must always agree in gender! the noun to which it belongs; as,

El hombrc sdbio, the wise man. La muger sabia, the wise woman.

1 number with

Los hombres sdbios, the wise men.

Las mugeres sdbios, the wise women.

Participles used as adjectives agree in gender and number ■with the noun to which they belong; as,

El enganado rey, the deluded ] La engnnada rcina, the deluded king. | queen.

Las enganadas eriadas, the deluded female servants.

An adjective does not agree with the gender of the title of a person, but with the gender of the person to whom it is applied; as,

Su majestad estd enferma, his I Su majestad ettd enferma, her majesty is ill. j majesty is ill.

Nada, nothing, requires a masculine adjective; as,
Kada hay limpio, there-is nothing pure.

Two or more nouns in the singular require the adjective which belongs to them to be in the plural, and if the nouns are of different genders, the adjective must be in the masculine; as,

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an adjective expressing the nation, but by the name of the country, preceded by the preposition; as.

El rey de Espaiia, the king of I La rema de Inglaterra, the

Spain. { queen of England.

El presidente de los Estados Uhidos, the president of the United States.

*F Adjectives of both numbers and genders are often used as nouns, being in such cases preceded by the article: as,

Un rico, a rich (man). I Los ricos, the rich (men).

Una rica, a rich (woman), | Los ricas, the rich (women). Lot doctos, the learned.

The neuter article (as it is called) lo, precedes adjectives in the singular number, used as nouns, when taken in a general sense, without reference to either gender; as,

Lo escrito, the written, i.e. that I Lo malo, the bad, ». e. that which is written. | which is bad.

Lo tiguente, the following, i.e. that which follows.

Adjectives and participial adjectives are much oftener placed after the noun to which they belong than before it; as,

Sombre sdbio, a wise man. I Gudrdia axanzada, advanced Furor poe'tico, poetical fury. | guard.

In many cases it is left entirely to the taste of the writer to place the adjective before or after the noun to which it belongs. But cardinal numbers, adjectives expressing some inherent or peculiar property, habit, or practice of the noun to which they belong, and adjeerivea employed as particular epithets with a proper name, are generally placed before the noun: so likewise adjectives accented on the antepenult; as,

Una diilee frcseura, a pleasant I La blanca nine, the white

coolness. 1 snow.

CristaUna dgua, crystalline I La timida oveja, the timid

water. sheep.

El ambieioso Jefferson, the ambitious Jefferson.

The above rule is liable to many exceptions. Indeed, no certain rules can be given for the position of adjectives. Attention on the part of the pupil to the practice of the best Castilian writers will prove the best means of teaching him the most proper arrangement for adjectives.*

Tanto, as murh; cuanto, so much; mucho, much: todo, all; poeo, little; are always placed before the noun.

In some few cases the same adjective has a different i ing, according as it is placed before or after the noun; as,

Cierla senora, a certain lady.
Cuenta ckria, a true (certain) narrative.


J. Vf. Cook: Keightley's History of England is as good as any you ( get, If you want a comprehensive account of the whole subject.

Amateur Artist: We re^reL to say we cannot comply with jour v in the thort space that remains.

0>k Op Odr Scholars is respectfully informed that we hare no f of publishing ail Italian dictionary at present.

Thomas Dainss has solved the first thirty-two of the Second Centenary of Algebraical Problems. 1 Lis solution of Ji o. 29 is correct.

J. B. M. A. had better apply to Mr. Bell. The work ou Algebra Is not the same as in the P. K. There is no necessity to study both, though it may be advantageous to see different statements of the same principles, and to hare additional examples for exercise.

A. C.: The following is the solution :—The least common denominator is 19 000. Dividing- this by each denominator, we have 1,000, 190 and 19 for the multipliers of the several numerators. Whence the required fractions

David Bailbv (Broadlanes); Lso (Liverpool) j A. LamLOVf; Richard Peach (Derby); Geo. Jackson (London): Title and Index to Vol. V. of the P. K. may be had through any bookseller; also covers for the same. Title and Index to Vol. VI. will be printed with No. 156, and covers will be prepared for the single and donble volumes.

* The adjective is sometimes used after the noun In English account current; the tie matrimonial; life everlasting; a no verb 1 page thirtieth.

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along, and terminates at a in a copper ring, to w hich is attached the end of a brass wire. This wire, which is 130 feet long, is wound more or less in the groove, and passes over to the cylinder A, and after being rolled many times round A, is fastened at its extremity e. Lastly, of the two adjusting screws n and o, which keep the conductors of the current that we wish to observe fixed, one is connected by means of a strip of steel with the copper cylinder A, and the other with the ring a.

When a current enters at o, it traverses only that part of the wire wound round the cylinder B, in which the spirals are isolated by the groove, but when once it has reached the cylinder A, which is metallic and in contact with the wire, the current passes from m to ». Consequently, if we wish to increase the length of the circuit, we have only to turn the winch d from right to left. If, on the contrary, we wish to diminish it, we put the winch upon the axis e, and then, turning it from left to right, wind the wire upon the cylinder A. We may thus diminish or increase the intensity of the current at pleasure, for, as will be shown presently,'this.intensity is in inverse proportion to the length of the circuit. With regard to the length of the circuit, it is indicated by two needles which are not risible in the figure, but are moved by the cylinders A and B ■when they turn together.

The Sine Compass is a galvanometer intended to measure the intensity of currents, without having recourse to a table of graduation. This apparatus, which was invented by M. Pouillet, differs from the galvanometer described in a previous lesson in several respects. In the first place, the copper wire along which'the current passes is wound only a very few times round the magnetised needle, sometimes only once. Further, the dial, about which the wire is wound, is moveable about a vertical axis upon a fixed horizontal circle, which serves to indicate the displacement of the dial. The galvanometrical circuit being placed in the magnetic meridian, and consequently in the same plane as the needle, the current is passed. The needle being deflected, turn the circuit till it coincides with the vertical plane passing through the magnetised needle. At this moment, the directive action of the current being exerted perpendicularly to the direction of the magnetised needle, it is demonstrated by mathematical investigation that the intensity of the current is proportional to the sine of the YOL. V.

angle of deflection of the needle. Consequently, the angle of deflection being known, and therefore also its sine, the intensity of the current may be deduced.

Laws of the Intensity of Currents.—Currents of the same intensity are those which in the same circumstances produce the same deflection in the same magnetised needle. A great many philosophers—among whom Messrs. Ohm, Pouillet, Faraday, Fechner, and De la Rive may be particularly mentioned—have endeavoured to compare the intensities of electrical currents arising from different sources. These researches, which have been carried on by means of the galvanometer, the sine compass, and the rheostat, have led to the establishment of the same laws for thermo-electrical currents as for hydro-electrical currents. Only in the case of the former we neglect the directive influence of the battery, because, being metallic and of small dimensions, its resistance may be disregarded. But this is not the case with hydro-electrical currents, in reference to which it is necessary to take into account the resistance of the battery. M. Pouillet accomplishes this object by adding to the length of the interpolated wire, that length of wire which by its resistance would produce upon the current the same diminution of the intensity as the battery itself produces by its feeble conductibility. The circuit being entirely metallic, which is then supposed to be traversed by the current, is called by M. Pouillet the reduced current.

The following are the different laws observed by electrical currents, whatever be the nature of the source from which they are derived.

1. The intensity of a current is directly proportional to the sum of the electro-motive forces which are in operation in the circuit; understanding by electro-motive force the cause, whatever it may be, which produces a liberation of dynamical electricity.

2. The intensity is the same at all points of the circuit.

3. The intensity is in inverse proportion to the reduced length of all the parts of the circuit.

4. The intensity is in direct proportion to the thickness and conductibility of the wire along which the current passes.

It follows from the last two laws, that the intensity remains the same when the thickness of the wire is always in the same ratio to its length.

M. Pouillet found that in liquids, as well as solids, the intensity of the current is in direct proportion to the thickness of the liquid column along which the current passes, and in inverse proportion to its length, provided the length is at least five or six times that of the diameter of the column.

Conductibility of Hydro-Electrical Currents.—The conducting power of bodies in reference to hydro-electrical currents varies with the force of the currents, and with the different conductors which the currents have already passed through. Indeed, M. De la Rive has discovered that currents pass through metallic plates and liquids with greater ease in proportion to the number through which they have already passed.

By means of the voltameter, Sir Humphrey Davy found that the conductibility ot the same metal is directly proportional to the thickness of the wire and inversely proportional to its length. M. Becquerel has verified the truth of this law by means of a galvanometer with two wires. With regard to the electric conductibility of different metals, M. Ed. Becquerel found that at freezing point their relative conducting powers may be represented by the following numbers:—Silver, 100; copper, 91-5; gold, 64'9; zinc, 24; tin, 14; iron, 12'3; lead, 8'3; platinum, 7-9; mercury, 1-739.

On comparing together the conducting powers of different liquids, and taking that of distilled water as unity, M. Pouillet arrived at the following results:—Water containing ;aioo of nitric acid, 6; water saturated with sulphate of zinc, 167; water saturated with sulphate of copper, 400. With regard to the ratio between the conductibility of metals and that of liquids, the latter is much more feeble, for, according to M. Pouillet, copper conducts sixteen million times better than saturated solution of sulphate of copper, which is six thousand four hundred million times better than distilled water.

Lastly, it has been found that the elevation of the temperature increases the conducting power of liquids, while the contrary takes place with solids.

Velocity of Electricity.—Numerous attempts have been made to determine the velocity of the propagation of electricity along


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