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took place in an obscure corner of this vast con- “ In 1819 it divided into two branches ; one tinent. The world, absorbed in the great move passing to the eastward through the Burmese ments which were occurring upon a more empire, and reaching China and the Indian conspicuous theatre, paid little regard to the Archipelago in 1820. The other moving west. sufferings of a simple people whose very ward in 1821, passing along the shores of the name was almost unknown. History seemed to Persian Gulf, and in the following year appear. have passed them by without awarding to the ing in the interior of Persia, and in Arabia and perpetrators of the outrage the stern rebuke Syria. In 1823 it first appeared in the Russian which they so justly merited. Years rolled on; empire, in the provinces bordering on the Caswhat history had overlooked philanthropy re- pian. It then suddenly stopped, and while all vealed. Genius came to her aid, and poetry the northern population of the empire were in embalmed what men of a wiser and better age terror, and Europe was in alarm, it seemed 10 would not “ willingly let die." At length the have ceased; and remained nearly dormant for whole story of sorrow and of crime is placed on five years. the enduring page. Let no one distrust the final “ But, in 1828, it burst out again, and moved award of history ; let no people hope to escape through Orenburg with sudden force, through the its just retribution.

C. western and northern provinces in 1829 and

1830 ; reaching Moscow in September, 1831. For Friends' Review.

Early in the following year it had traversed the THE CHOLERA.

five hundred miles between Moscow and the At the present time, when this alarming dis- capital, where it broke out with fearful mortality

. ease is spreading over the eastern part of Eu

“From this point it spread westward with an rope, and carrying off great numbers in Peters

accelerated velocity, and reached the Polish burgh, Moscow, and some other Russian cities, capital in March, Dantzig in May, Berlin in Authe following extracts from a discourse delivered gust, and Hamburg in October. by Dr. Croly, giving a short account of its origin in this country in Sunderland ; and soon after

“ In the same year and month it was first felt and progress, some years ago, will probably be of interest to the readers of the Review. Many ward, it now crossed the Atlantic, and in 1833

reached London and Paris. Still moving westentertain the opinion that it may be looked for in England, and perhaps on this side the had seized on the United States, and gone so far Atlantic, before the close of the present year. pired. Having thus, in the eastern and western

as Mexico. On the shores of the Pacific it es It is well known that though the general pro- traverse, made the circuit of the globe. gress of the cholera, some 15 or 16 years ago,

“ Its destruction of life must have been imwas to the south and west, yet its precise line of march was eccentric and mysterious. The

Its havoc extended through half a experience of that day, demonstrated the neces

generation. Where it was neither resisted by sity of every possible precaution, and should medical science, nor mitigated by sanitary preDivine Providence again permit its appearance cautions, it was even more suddenly fatal ihan among us, the propriety is manifest, of each one

the plague. It killed at the instant. endeavouring to guard his own health, and that

“ İf, even in the civilization of England, it desof others, with the utmost care.


troyed twenty thousand lives; and destroyed

the same number in Paris alone ; what most “ We have no proof of the existence of the have been its massacre in the obscure and help Asiatic cholera earlier than the year 1817. less barbarism of the east and south-in the There had been vague recollections of an epide- tainted hovels, the mephitic swamps, and the mic which burst out in the midst of an assem- marshy shores of vast regions, without governblage of pilgrims in Central India about the year ment, precaution, or provision, without medical 1772, destroying thousands, and scattering the science or religious charity, or even rational rest; but it may have been the plague. Our alarm ? The deaths must have been incalcufirst exact knowledge of the cholera was in the lable.” disease which traversed England fifteen years ago.

For Friends' Review. “Slowness, regularity of movement, and

THE NATURAL SCIENCES. eccentricity of direction, formed the characteristics of its progress. It commenced in May, One of the great English Universities having 1817, in the Delta of the Ganges, slowly spread recently proposed to increase the facilities for ing during the remainder of the year through the study of the sciences, including Natural HisLower Bengal. In 1818 it moved northward, tory, the Westminster Review has discussed and travelled the whole of the Peninsula at the the contemplated changes in an elaborate article, rate of a degree a month. Yet it had not the from which we take the following passages. I surge-like sweep of the plague, but moved in is far from our wish to promote in our sehools lines, osten parallel for a great distance, and a multiplication of studies, which might interfere capriciously sparing intermediate districts. with thorough instruction in the elements of


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learning ; neither would we by any means ad- and this, we must suppose, ought to make a vocate the substitution of Natural Science for motive of preference. classical studies. Yet we apprehend many in- “ There is much to be said for the power of tervals of leisure which are now wasted, might mathematics in disciplining and cultivating the be very usefully employed by children of both reason, and in creating habits of precise dealing sexes in the pursuit of Natural History-and with all matters that have to be judged, true or especially to young persons, who are qualifying false. But processes of the soundest reasoning themselves for teachers, would we commend the and judgment are now embodied in many judicious observations of the Reviewer. The sciences; in general physics, for instance, and expansion of the mind, is the natural result of to a very remarkable degree in chemistry, where increased knowledge, and these pursuits may be strict quantitative truth is insisted on under all made to conduce to physical as well as mental circumstances, and where, in fact, there is a health, if not permitted to become, as we must discipline more than merely mathematical. The confess they are very liable to become, too en- laboratory operations of testing and analysis, in grossing.

which every blunder recoils upon the operator,

and where his knowledge, ingenuity and watch“In throwing new weight into the scientific fulness, are incessantly on the stretch, may be scale, it is to be taken into account, that in their strongly recommended as a discipline of the present state of advancement, the subjects in reasoning and judging faculties; and, in many question constitute a very high mental cultiva- instances, it would probably be the best training tion. By their means, a human being may that could be chosen. A fighty, sanguine temacquire no ordinary degree of accomplishment. perament, that jumped to conclusions, and negThey give the power of comprehending, ex- lected half the considerations of a case, would plaining, and being intensely interested in, the find itself in an iron grapple of rigid nationality, entire framework of nature around, as well as if sent to the laboratory of Graham or Liebig. most of the subtle processes of man's designing. The natural-history sciences also produce very They contain the abbreviated statements of the valuable habits of methodical and lucid arrangeprocedure of creation in its grand and in its ment, such as no assemblage of details can ever minute operations ;-in the career of the winds overpower. In fact, every one of the more adand the launching of the thunder,-in the subule vanced sciences has the capacity of conferring a movements of light and multiform workings of valuable mental discipline peculiar to itself; at heat, in the transformations of matter and the the same time that they have, one and all, the powers of life,—in the ways of the creatures common tendency to render our judgments and that tread the globe in our company,--and in the procedure conformable to the reality of things, forms of races long departed from the earth. and to save us from tragic encounters with the The human intellect is richly stored, by being irresistible might of nature's laws. filled with thoughts on things such as these ; and “It is also worthy of remark, in favour of scithere are perpetual occasions for reproducing entific studies, that they are well fitted to infuse these impressions in the current of waking medi- a healthful and ornamental culture in general tations. The entomologist, as well as the poet. society. They are better subjects for intercomhas at times his eye in fine frenzy rolling.' munication in our social circles, than any of the Nature is ever showing impressive and exciting processes or results of mathematics, or than the instances of her own laws, such as keep the materials of classical literature. They relate to intelligent spectator, as he walks abroad, all alive things that come under the eye of the general with expectation and interest. Moreover, these population; they can make indifferent occursubjects contain a vast amount of important in- rences interesting, and interesting facts still more formation about our own selves and the things interesting. A chemist or a naturalist, of good that effect our well-being. They give us in acquirements, has numerous opportunities of struction, in language more trustworthy than the repeating his knowledge; he can often commutraditions of unnumbered ages of vulgar experi- nicate a word in season to the excited curiosity ence, regarding the agencies of health and com- of his friends. With his specimens and his apfort, strength and felicity; they sweep away paratus he provokes the inquiries of his visitors, prejudices, correct false modes of reasoning, and and his acquisitions frequently place him in the qualify men for understanding their own consti- centre of an attentive and deferential circle. In tutions, and appreciating the exterior influences his walks, he inspires his companions with his of their life. To have a body and a mind like enthusiasm, and makes them wiser in the midst ours, and a world so vast and complex, eternally of their frolics. In his family, he sustains a shedding impressions and influences upon both, current of interest, and kindles up the love of is a heavy charge, and such as to make all sound knowledge. It is hardly possible, in any comdirection and correct information earnestly sought pany, it can never be in order in mixed society, after and prized. One's studies may be a mere to discuss the foundations of the differential calgratification of the intellect, or they may, in ad- culus, the Æolic dialect, or the personality of dition, furnish profitable guidance to the life ; Homer ; but most people may be interested in



the discoveries of Liebig or Wheatstone, or the marked, also, that there is no one subject that generalizations of Cuvier or Owen—not to speak does not receive lights from many subjects. of the natural curiosity to know of the subsist Classical antiquity can be admirably illustrated ence and habits of animals—the haunts of the by natural history, by chemistry, by physics, by eagle, the propensities of the elephant, and the political economy, all which contain the neces. life-circle of the insect-and the classification sary conditions, true in every age, of industrial and affinities of plants. It is impossible ever to operations and material produce, by physical have a well-informed community, unless by an geography and human anatomy; and it must be even sprinkling of well-informed individuals, of of great value to the classical student, to find the cultivated address, giving line upon line, here a principles of these subjects passing as commonlitile and there a little, to the circles where they places in the university, or, at all events, accuexperience the joys of existence. Books, alone, rately known to his fellow students. The floatare very inadequate instructors of the million. ing intellect of the college atmosphere, the genus Hence, if any studies, good in themselves, are of loci, would in this way be a mightier influence a kind to be readily communicable to the un- on all the individual minds." studious throng, in the hours when they meet to sympathize and to talk, they deserve to be

Abridged from the Church of England Quarterly Review. specially encouraged :--they are at once intel

ZOOLOGICAL RECREATIONS. lectual life to the few, and the civilizers of the many.

By W. T. BRODERIP, Esq, F. R. S.. &c. “One other consideration may be urged in After hot contention and fierce fray, sweet favour of the extension of the university field; and profitable is it to go, like Isaac, and meditate namely, the additional good that would accrue in the fields at eventide. Happy is he who can to the whole body of students, from an univer- leave dissensions in towns, and walk forth into sity residence. In a place where many distinct the meadows. The aspect of nature helps him branches of study are carried on, and where the to understand nature's God, and 10 adore with scholars mingle freely, there is a double edu- increased fervour, Him whom he had adored cation at work; each one enjoys the fruit of his before as the God of revelation. And this wor. own application, and also hears and sees many ship begets worship; for at each footstep, as he of the proceedings of the entire circle of student- advances, the blessed earth sends up incense ship. The cultivation of the newly proposed from her crushed grass; and standing on that branches would give unavoidable instruction to which veils the ruins of sixty centuries of morthe devotees of the ancient pursuits. Though tality here below, and gazing upwards at the Homer and Thucydides were a scholar's proper veil which hangs before the throne of immor. business, yet, in visiting the rooms of his friends, tality above, man confesses the imperishable he would hear of the remarkable doctrines and greatness of the one, the passing beauty of the experiments of the lecturer on optics, or the other, and the lessons and the happiness which professor of chemistry; he would be shown the he derives from both. plan of the Menai bridge, the track of a hurri- But the earth and the seasons bring enjorcane, or the decomposition of water; he would ments only to those who merit them. Recreacome to know the appearance of trap rock, and tion is for the active man—not for the sluggard. get interested in the sutures of a skull. In The great original curse has, by immutable bewalking parties, the ornithologist of the company nevolence, been converted into a blessing for would give his companions an eye for the flight those who take the yoke willingly; who, con of birds, and the botanist excite their attention to demned to labour, labour with zeal; and who the flowering of plants. It would be impossible neither doubt the justice of the universal sentence, for the most determined mathematician, or the nor strive to evade it. These, having laboured, most voracious swallower of dictionaries, to are denied neither repose nor pure pleasures; leave college in entire ignorance of the ordinary but the idle man, who, seeking to escape labour, vegetable species, or unable to say wherein a labours doubly and unrequitedly in the attempt fish differed from a reptile. We have already to him there is no rest in relaxation : it is but a touched upon the importance of filling up the shifting of his burden—no procuring of enjor. ranks of society with men of various acquire- ment or instruction to his spirit. The active ments ; and the principle holds as true of college Christian is the best servant of God, and for life as of common life. To have every one him are reserved the rewards due to good and studying the same things, or occupying their faithful followers of their Master. minds with similar trains, will not produce the How eloquently and how truthfully, has Dr. highest possible culture, either in the community Croly pictured that unhappy race, to be found or in the individual. There should be no dis- among all classes of life to whom much has tinct branch of the knowable that has not its been given, and who return nothing, save blank living oracles; and when a number of people disappointment to sanguine expectation. come together, each should have something to Even in the full light of the purest form impart and something to learn. It is to be re- of Christianity, are we not often compelled to

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feel how perversely it is resisted by the wilful- | who, like an incipient Hullah-ite, is everlastingly
ness of man? How vast a class exist who, practising his thirds—of owls with whom are
misinterpreting an exemption from labour into a midnight gayety, and gravity at noon—and then
discharge from duty, cast life away among the of the loquacious parrot-of the stately turkey,
triflings of the hour-who, returning nothing to and, lastly, the graceful swan, wild and tame,
the great ever-open treasury of the happiness with a dissertation on May, close the first part
and the wisdom of human nature—slaves of of a volume wherein scenery is depicted with a
self-indulgence and incapable of self-control, feel skilful and a loving hand.
existence only to avoid all its nobler uses-lavish The leaves devoted to the singing birds are
time, talent, and opulence, in a fruitless pursuit among the most brilliant and amusing of the
of faded pleasure; and at length, experiencing book—we may add, among the most instructive;
the vanity of human things without the moral of for there is a world of instruction and novelty to
the lesson, after encumbering the earth, disap- be found in the details afforded of the private and
pear into a forgotten tomb."

public life of the plumy denizens of the woods
But to return to our first assertion-unspeak of their manners, morals, costume, social relations,
able is the pleasure of exchanging turmoil for their characteristics, language, and architecture.
tranquillity ; the town, made by man, for the A rivalry reigns in every wood where song-
country and country things created by God; sters congregate : there a melodious note of de-
controversy for content; the hot assertion and Giance is no sooner sounded than it is accepted,
the fierce retort for the native wood-notes of our repeated, and excelled, only to have note of ac-
warblers wild, and the soothing music of rippling ceptance made in return and with increase of
brooks. How dark and lowering have been the gushing sweetness. Rival birds, indeed, have
storms which have recently threatened—nay, been known to take the challenge, and to carry
assailed—both church and state, we need not, on the tuneful contest until, of one or both, the
happily for us, pause here to relate. Thrice delicate vessels of the lungs have burst, and the
happy do we feel that we may escape from song of triumph has been but the hymn for the
them; and, under the frank and pleasant guidance dead. But wonderful, and generally secure, is
of Mr. Broderip, go forth into the green fields to the organization of the smallest singers with the
be silent, to learn, and to enjoy. He has a right widest compass of voice. The larynx of the
to express his happiness who, snatched from nightingale, which one would sometimes think
the very thickest of a fray, finds himself sud- was about to split asunder, is, in fact, strength-
denly afar from strife and malaria, the blue sky ened by the use; it has wear, but not tear-the
above him, the teeming earth beneath, Mr. Bro- more it sings the better its organ is adapted for
derip at his side, and the Hampden controversy, singing; and, though a poetical writer in the
the Jew bill, the swelling income tax, relations Bath Journal has said of it that
with Rome, and French republics, all unheeded

-the nightingale sings best or forgotten.

When her warm and downy bresst · In a magic land will he find himself who,

Is bleeding with the thorn;" once opening the leaves of Zoological Recrea- yet it is matter of simple fact, that excellence tions," will yield himself to its gentle persuasion. with the nightingale is--as it is with the striving There is no reluctant following through miry children of men—it is practice that makes perways or thorny paths—the author sets you fect. down in the country at once.

The fields The parental note is the natural note of the sparkle with gladness; the streams fling back in bird ; all power and nature of singing are thence double light, the light flung down upon them derived. Deprive a fledgling of all access to the from above; the dark woody dells look as hearing of that note, and he will adopt the first though they had here and there golden-barked of which he is permitted to be conscious. Thus, trees, which, in fact, are only the beeches more we have heard of a speaking thrush. Some closely kissed by the sunshine; and then what birds have adrpted, as far as in them lay, the harmony accompanying all !—as in truth there sounds of animals. But whatever they learn, must needs be in the happy spring time—when the birds have the best of it-singing never ruins we have entered upon the ten weeks' season of them. Not so with less perfect humanity; a unmatchable song which is annually vouchsafed good voice has been a passport to destruction, to us by the loves, desires, fears, or wanton and there have been more mothers than Niobe, idleness of our wild and feathered choristers. who have had to bewail that their sons had

In spring the singing birds take precedence of turned musical. everything, save the flowers, of which they seem Whether every winged thing, whose nomenalmost a part, giving interpretation to sweet clature was fixed in Paradise by our great incense by sweet song. To the forest choir, father, was also a thing of winged melody, is a then, Mr. Broderip devotes his opening pages ; question we may leave to be discussed and anand as one who loves as deeply as he knows swered both affirmatively and negatively, (as them, does he discourse of plumed harmonists, they do always,) by the Jewish rabbis. Howwhether resident or migratory—of the cuckoo,' ever this may be, ihere is one bird of prey, at.



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least, which retains a fulness of primeval power circumstances and necessity, abandon theit of song. This is the savage but musical hawk young to starvation and death in their nests; and or falcon of Africa, whose song is as sweet and he recounts a story of the old birds, on returnfascinating as its nature is fierce, and its appetite ing to their nest, trying to eject the dead bodies unappeasable. In Britain we have nothing like of their little ones; and, not succeeding, resortthis ; indeed, with us, the sweetest of our singing ing to the process of covering them with clay, birds are elegant visitors from Italy; and, like and thus building them a sepulchre ! But the their human prototypes, who visit us about the contrivance was worthy commendation, however same period, and sojourn with us for about the impelled ; nor can we peruse any of the charmsame extent of time, they come only for the ing descriptions in Mr. Broderip's pages without profit to be derived from their sojourn. The being reminded through these simple birds uccelli resort hither for better food; the signore without having brought close to our hearts the for something equally moving—the means of renewed conviction of the wisdom and benevoprocuring it. The most costly, executes least lence of the Creator. efficient service-the birds rid us of our devasta- We despair to convey to our readers an idea ting slugs and snails—the human singers rid us of the sweetness which pervades the pages deof our guineas.

voted to the nightingales. Due honour is done The more we peruse Mr. Broderip's admi- to the Germans for their love of these matchless rable book, the more we are struck with the songsters. We have ourselves witnessed this; analogy that may be drawn between birds and we have seen a crowd of Bonn students hushed men.

into silent ecstacy by one nightingale, which, in It may be thought that we are travelling 1840, used to make a mile of wood ring with something out of our record by noticing these her nightly melody. It is not long since we matters; but, in themselves, they are curious ; believe it was in the same year—that the Prusand man may be legitimately treated of in a sian authorities, in want of money, ordered the paper touching on and discussing “Zoological trees around Cologne to be felled and sold. The Recreations ;" for man is an animal. He has whole ancient city of Agrippina was alive with been even senatorially declared so to be in the terror; the trees abounded with nightingales old French chamber of deputies. A somewhat which the Kölnische burghers adored, and they timid speaker, whose name has fallen from the actually bought the trees standing, and thus pre tablets of our memory, once commenced a speech served them for the nightingales, and the nightbefore that critical and exemplary assembly, ingale music for Cologne ! with the words, “L'homme est un animal!" We may balance the nightingales with the Like the blushing English borough member, who prolific sky-larks—those multipliers who are thrice uttered the words, “I conceive- and slain annually by thousands and tens of thouthen, incapable of delivering his ideas by ex- sands, and who never seem to suffer diminution. pression, sat down in confusion-so the French Some of Mr. Broderip's details would seem inspeaker, having three times pronounced the uncredible were they not notorious or well authendisputed fact, “ L'homme est un animal !" (Man ticated. Their procreant power is astounding. is an animal) retired from the tribune, ashamed Before leaving our winged friends we will of his attempt. The attempt, however, if not notice, with satisfaction, that Mr. Broderip adwitty in itself, was the cause of wit in others; vocates the cause of the much maligned cuckoo, for a member present immediately arose and pro- who, we fear, is after all but a sorry fellow; posed that their honorable colleague's speech but he has his use, as may be seen in the fact should be printed for circulation, with a portrait of his being employed to regulate the balance of the author annexed !

between the insects and insect devourers; the Both birds and men have achieved good repu- former would be exterminated but for our ancient tations from no better cause than misapprehen- friend, who has been known, in one season, to sions of action. Poets and zoologists have destroy not less than 3,500,000 of the eggs of wasted a world of rhyme and hypothesis upon insectivorous birds. the piety of those pretty swallows which are

(To be continued.] known, or which are supposed, to bury their dead; but we believe this arises from selfishness.

Communicated for Friends' Revies. We are afraid that even the robbins who performed their maimed rites over the bodies of our

OLD STANDARD OF QUAKERISM. lamented young friends, the Children in the William Penn says, page 748, folio edition: Wood, were impelled more by offence conveyed " It is the mark of an ill-nature, to lessen good to their sensations, than pity for the victims of actions and aggravate ill ones. that wicked uncle near Norwich! However "Such people, generally, have less merit than this may be, it is clear that the swallows are by ambition, that covet the reward of other men's: no means worthy of the reputation they have and to be sure, a very ill-nature, that will rather achieved for pity or parental affection. Mr. rob others of their due, than allow them their Broderip shows that they will, under certain I praise.

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