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ublica A brie to the
This is the party now in jeopardy-the to the touch? No! We speak for the Ameriparty whose existence is so interwoven with can people, who are not ungrateful, who the life of the nation, that to destroy the one still bear in remembrance the services of the is to permanently injure the other. past, who are yet unwilling to trust a country saved by loyal blood and treasure in the hands of those who encouraged its destruction-when we say that despite the efforts of Democracy, and the schemes of bad men, the Republican party will still be supported by the loyal element of the country as the only party that has been faithful to its trust, and that is able to protect the nation's honor, while advancing the nation's prosperity.
Is a party record, so glorious and praiseworthy, to be destroyed by the breath of slander, or blotted out from the hearts of a grateful people, by the efforts of partizan malice? Is a party that has given such transcendent evidence of its ability to govern wisely, and justly, and honestly, the affairs of a great nation, to be laid aside, just as the fruits of its noble labors are ripening
THE FRENCH REPUBLIC-ITS NEW CONSTITUTION AND
M. Laboulaye, Chairman of the Committee The struggle between Imperialism, Mon of Thirty in the Versailles Assembly, who archy, and the Republic had continued for were charged with the consideration of all over four years, from the date of the estabmeasures relating to organic laws, declared lishment of peace, and the removal of the that the French Republicans of all shades, National Assembly, so-called, from Bordeaux accepted the compromise measures finally to Versailles. That assembly, elected to adopted, "through the love of country, in close the war between Germany and France, order to obey that requirement of peace and refused under the reaction created by the union, which is the desire of a people exCommune rebellion, to give place to a Conhausted by war and tried by revolutions." stituent Assembly, and succeeded in making. The speaker, a leader of the left centre or itself the government of France, for the time moderates of his party, did not make too being. At the begining of this provisional large a claim on the respect and admiration period, the reactionaries had a clear majority of mankind for those who acted with him, in of between two and three hundred. When, the foregoing declaration. History holds however. it came to be a question of who within its ample folds, few events more should reap the results, the majority diworthy of praise, than those which have in vided, and the Legitimatists, the Orleanists the main marked the advent of the present and Imperialists, could not be induced to Parliamentary Republic of France. That agree on an executive or the form of governpraise is due to the various divisions of the ment. The first and third of these factions Republican party, which, under the leader- determined to accept the Comte de Chambord ship on the one side, of Thiers, Grévy, and as Henri V., but that logical acceptor of the other converted Constitutional Monarchists, ⚫ right divine of kings," refused to " conand of Leon, Gambetta, Laboulaye, Jules quer his prejudices" to constitutional guaranSimon, Emanuel Arago and others who have tees or a national flag, the tricolor, under always been Republican in politics, have which his family had been driven out of kept steadily in view the establishment of France. These parties combined to defeat that form of Goverment, which, as M. Thiers Thiers and substitute McMahon, but could so tersely put it"divides France the go no further. least."
On the other hand time has been the most
The constitutional bills under which the Re-efficient ally of the Republicans. It has
soothed away their own differences; healed the
brought nearly all divisions under the acknowedged leadership of Thiers and Gambetta. No man ever gave another more loyal service than the fiery and impetuous Republican orator has accorded the astute and vetėran statesman, who, loving the country more than his own opinions, assumed the functions of Republican leadership with the same earnestness that he served King Louis Phillippe and opposed Napoleon III.
In the four years of struggle, many members who sat on the Right or Right Centre
benches have died. In the vacancies created by death or other means, au ounting to about one hundred and fifty, the Republicans have gained largely on the popular vote, carrying at least one hundred and twenty-five of the elections. They have also received accessions from other parties.
thereto, which will be done by selecting one
Under the organic laws adopted last February, working details of which are now being discussed, the Government of France presents the following features:
1. A distinct acceptance of the Republic. as the future government of France.
The Senate is to be elected, (except those
It became evident from all these facts that the Republic represented the will of a majority of the PEOPLE of France. As this be came more apparent daily, the Republicane policy shifted. The Left, while still deny ing the power of the Assembly to make a definite Constitution, accepted such proclamation of the Republic as is involved in the laws now adopted, and stand ready to go to the country when the Assembly is dissolved.
The department of the Seine and Nord, (in which Paris and Havre are situated,) are to have five Senators each. Six others, one near Paris, and in which are Calais, Lyons, Marsailles, and other principal cities, will have four each. Twenty-seven others will have three each; the others two each, and the colonies of Martinique, Guadaloupe, Reunion, and the French Indies (Cochin China, etc.,) are to have one each. There are in all 130 departments. Gambetta has declared that the introduction of the Commune delegates as an agency in the election of Senators, is practically the most Democratic measure yet adopted in France.
2. A National Assembly to consist of two Chambers-Senate and Deputies, the latter of which is to be elected by universal suffrage, for three years, unless dissolved by the President, the Senate concurring. A Deputy must be a Frenchman, without civil disability, and not less than twenty-five years of age. If the Chamber of Deputies is dissolved, a new election must be ordered with
in three months thereafter.
3. The Senate is to consist of three hundred members, to be chosen in the following manner: Two hundred and twenty-five by the departments and colonies, and seventyfive by the Chamber of Deputies. The term of service for Senators is to be for nine years, 4. The two Chambers are to constitute after the first Senate has adjusted itself the National Assembly.
The electoral college, so-called, will vote the whole list of its nominees, no Senator to be declared elected without a clear majority of the votes cast. The Chamber of Deputies. is to choose its seventy-five Senators by ballot. The Senate must be elected one month before the present assembly dissolves, and to assemble for organization on the day of that dissolution.
This body elects the Chief Executive, or President; votes supplies, declares war or peace, and provides by law for the general operations of the government.
A small body of the extreme Left, headed by Louis Blanc, are, however, in partial hostility to the policy of conciliation, supported by M. Gambetta. In a recent speech, M. Blanc declares that the policy of Gambetta was really voted "a non-hereditary monarchy in a country where for a century no being has bequeathed his throne to his son. The historical correctness of the statement ought to have taught M. Blanc that he exaggerates the danger arising from the considerable powers now intrusted to the French executive.
The Radical orator holds the existing government to be "only that of a Monarchy, and not that of a Republic. The President summons and dismisses the ministers like a king. He appoints all public officials like a king. He can command armies; he can be re-elected twice, and govern for twenty-one years."
These are the principal features of the organic laws under which the government of France is now being organized. The right to declare war and make peace was first claimed for the executive, but has been set- M. Gambetta's policy, as indicated by tled as stated. The chief topic still under his speeches and the paper which reprediscussion is as to the manner in which Dep-sents him, is very clear and distinct. He uties shall be elected—whether by general sees plainly that the old order is on the delists in each department or by seperate dis- fensive; that the new or Democratic forces tricts. These are termed respectively scru- are advancing and aggressive, but that the tin d'liste and scrutin d'arrondisement. power of resistance in the first is ample enough (and likely to remain so for some time to come) to hinder any too rapid development, or crush any rash effort to achieve to-day what could only be fairly and fully secured to-morrow. The ex-Dictator comprehends that to establish a Republic se
The Republicans and Legitimates in the
ous appointments, that its influence and
It is probable that the parties of the Right
5th. The executive power is vested in a President, to be elected for seven years, and to be twice eligible for re-election. The President is to be commander-in-chief of the military and naval forces; has the right of pardon, but not of veto. Ministers are responsible to the executive, who, however, is liable to impeachment. He makes all appointments, civil and military. Treaties to be negotiated by the Executive, but are not ratified until approved by the National Assembly.
"A REPUDIATED DEBT CURRENCY in unlimited quantities," say the Ohio Democrats. "A sound currency of coin or its equivalent," say the Maine Democrats. "A tariff for rev"A tariff enue," say the Ohio Democrats. for revenue only, say the Maine Democrats. And yet the Ohio and Maine Democrats call themselves by the same name, and profess to belong to the same political church.
INFLATION OF THE CURRENCY INJURIOUS.
The Loomadity which caused the issue of a therefore, and to restore the circulation to its peper currency to meet the exceptional normal condition, preparatory to still further woute of the war, caused also a great increase reduction, inflation in the future is absolutely in private and national expenditure by dis- forbidden. turbing values, and by driving out of circulation the world's currency--gold and silver, It will be observed that the Republican statesmen who prepared the bill governing the issue of currency, were well aware of the effect it would have; and they constantly kept in mind the time when paper should be of equal value with gold. Of course, it is not to be expected that the subject of National finance is scientifically understood by all who are sent as representatives to Congress. And it may be readily conceived that circum-pected from it. Prices would rise; and with
When there is a redundant supply in the market of any commodity, it is always cheap, no matter what the commodity is. And if there is a redundant supply of paper money in circulation beyond the demands of business, it is always depreciated, because gold goes up. The greenback, therefore, buys less than it would if there was less difference between its face value than its quoted value in gold. To inflate the currency would bring upon the people the reverse of what was ex
the rise in price, men of fixed incomes derived from labor, would find that they could not obtain from their labor the necessities and comforts they formerly received when gold was low. As an evidence how inflation ran up prices, we have only to refer to any period when the volume of the currency was increased. Then, the stationary incomes which did not increase, and on which families had lived in economical respectability, were felt to be inadequate unless the expenses were diminished in the ratio of increased cost. This was the experience in thousands of cases; and heads of families who had silently borne the pressure of the times in the hope of better days coming, looked around with sorrow on the fact.
stances might arise in which the solution of a difficulty was said to lie in the issue of more greenbacks, or in allowing the issue already out to remain undisturbed. Such persons, especially if they represented communities who had suffered from financial pressure from any cause, were inclined to Chrow their influence in the direction of the issue of more currency, and of putting further off the period of return to specie payments. But in view of those who had charge of the finances of the country, it required continuous labor to provide for a judicious contraction of the volume of greenbacks in order to pave the way for specie resumption, and for a reduction from ruling prices.
The difference of opinoin thus existing has caused delay on various occasions, and led to
Had Mr. Bristow, the present Secretary of
duotua ions which have raised or depressed the Treasury, the administration of the Act of Congress of 1866, which provided that values, It has certainly interfered with the $10,000,000 of United States notes or greenapproximation of paper with gold, and pre-backs might be retired and cancelled within Vouted gold and silver from being accessible six months from the passage of the act, and to persons who desired that greenbacks might be convertible at will. While the country McCulloch when the provisions of the act under which $44,000,000 were retired by Mr. has so largo an amount of paper currency in were suspended by the act of February 4, vivoulation, a people so disposed to speculate as ours, will do so regardless of its effects. 1868, we do not think that he would And had no measures been passed to redeem have sanctioned the reissue of any part of the a given amount of greenbacks, and to with44,000,000. At all events, he is decidedly draw and cancel them, that they might never that he has directed the retirement and deagainst inflation in any form. And we find again be issued, a panic might always be struction of $1,292,420 in legal tenders, being threatened by men who thrive on the destruc- eighty per cent of new national bank circulation of others. To guard against panics,tion issued during the present month.
THE LIFE SAVING SERVICE AND THE REVENUE MARINE.
to the consideration of what should be done to lessen the dangers of our coast navigation and to save life and property from shipwreck. And from this arose the Life Saving Service, which is allied to the Revenue Marine.
At the beginning of the year 1872, the Revenue Marine consisted of twenty-five steamvessels, (including two steam-launches), and ten sailing vessels, which, with the exception of two steamers upon the lakes, whose services were not required, were in commission and distributed along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, and upon the lakes. The vessels of the Revenue Marine, patrol
There are some things in the history of the past, which show how little the country has been indebted to the Democratic party for its progress and development of the higher instincts of our nature. But there is abundant evidence of noble actions having been performed by individuals or by communities, dwelling on the banks of rivers or by the seashore, who sought to save life at the risk of their own and frequently with pleasing sucTheir inspiration, however, was not obtained from the Democratic party. That party was in power for many years, and only relinquished it when Mr. Lincoln assumed the office of Chief Magistrate. The quarter of a century immediately preceding the war, our waters chiefly to protect the public revewas a most eventful period in our annals.nue against smuggling, and to lend assistSteam, and railroad and telegraph came into ance to mariners and vessels in distress. As common use. The world beyond took gigan- illustrating the great improvement which has tic strides, which were followed by men of been made in the service during the past two energy with us. But the Democratic party years, the following is a comparative statewas too dull to be influenced by the spirit of ment of the service rendered by revenue progress. The opportunity was presented, vessels (exclusive of those of a special nature, but it failed to take advantage of it. National which cannot be easily ascertained), for each advancement had no charms for the unter-year from 1860 to 1870, inclusive, with those rified. To confront the known dangers of rendered in the last fiscal year. The statenavigating our own waters, and to plan the ment is made by calendar years, because the means of rescue, was an occupation too flat, information happens to be more easily obstale and unprofitable to be worth Democratic tainable in that form : attention; for the highest ambition of the Democratic party, then as now, was to yield, with proud satisfaction, the control of the country, to the threats of the enemies of liberty, and to shape its legislation in the interest of their patrons. In consequence, 1860.. there were but few inter-State amenities between the South and the North; few efforts were made to build up that humane sentiment which should mark the nobility of a free and intelligent people; and fewer efforts still were made to carry out those broader views of duty which spring so naturally from the principles of the Republican party, which governed during the war of the Rebellion, and which continue to govern in its dealings with the affairs of men. Fierce political conflict was, however, softened by discussions of the claims of humanity exposed to suffering and peril. One of these discussions led
Average pr yea
159,574 147, 455 174, 111 99,326 126,552 192, 597 192, 313 83 155, 910 109 79 156,910 175 149 105, 903 1,306 1,259 1,623, 0
119 114 219 1,594
38,815 17,875 8,607
12,991 20 9,728 23 9,386
10,850 7.92 7.927 9,386
14 25 25 18
144, 033 192
147,599 13,098 17 37 166, 09824, 932
It is proper to say that 1,101 of the 1,594 vessels seized or reported for the violation of revenue law in the last fiscal year were re