Εικόνες σελίδας
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

The cones corresponding to each stripe have the same axis, which is called the axis of vision. This straight line being parallel to the rays of the sun, it follows that when the sun is in the horizon, the axis of vision is itself horizontal, and the rainbow appears in the form of a semi-circle. If the sun is raised above the horizon, the axis of vision is lowered, and with it the rainbow. Lastly, when the sun is 42° 2' above the horizon, the rainbow disappears altogether below the horizon. Hence it is never seen except in the morning or evening.

All that we have stated applies to the inner bow. With regard to the outer one, it is formed by rays which have undergone two reflections, as is seen in the ray s' i dfc o in the drop p. The angle s' i o, formed by the emerging and incident rays, is called the angle of deviation, as before. In the present case, however, this angle is not susceptible of a maximum, but of a minimum, which varies according to the different kinds of rays, and which has effective rays corresponding to i:. It is proved by calculation, that for violet rays the minimum angle is 54° V, and for red rays only 60° 57', which explains why the red bow is in this case inside and the violet outside. As at each interior reflection in the drop of water there is a loss of light, the outer bow always exhibits fainter colours than the inner one. The outer bow ceases to be visible when the sun is more than 54° above the horizon.

The moon produces rainbows as well as the sun, which are called lunar rainbows, but they are very pale.



This lady was born on the 16th of December, 17S6, at Abresford, in Hampshire. Her father was of an old Northumberland family, one of the Mitfords of Mitford Castle; her mother the only daughter of the Rev. Dr. Russell of Ash, in Hampshire, and she was their only child. When still a young girl, about the year 1806, Miss Mitford published a volume of miscellaneous poems, and two volumes of narrative poetry after the manner of Scott, "Christina, the Maid of the South Seas" (founded upon the story of the mutineers of the Bounty, afterwards taken by Lord Byron), and "Blanche, a Spanish Story." These books sold well and obtained a fair share of popularity, and some of them were reprinted in America. However, Miss Mitford herself was not satisfied with them, and for several of the following years devoted herself to reading instead of writing; indeed it is doubtful whether she would ever have written again had not she, with her parents, been reduced from the hish affluence to which they were born to comparative poverty. Filial affection induced her to resume the pen she had so long thrown aside, and accordingly she wrote the series of papers which afterwards formed the first volume of "Our Village: Sketches of Rural Character and Scenery," about 1820. But so little was the peculiar and original excellence of her descriptions understood at first, that, after being rejected by the more important publications, they at last saw the light in the "Lady's Magazine." The public were not long in discovering the beauties of a style so fresh yet so finished, and in appreciating the delicate humour and the simple pathos of these tales; and the result was, that the popularity of these sketches outgrew that of the works of a loftier order from the same pen; and every nook and corner of the cluster of cottages around Three-Mile-Cross, near Reading, in Berkshire, is as well known as the streets and lanes around the reader's own home. Four other volumes of sketches were afterwards added; the fifth, and last, in 1832. Extending her observation from the country village to the market-to wn, Miss Mitford published another interesting volume of descriptions, entitled "Belford Regis." She edited three volumes, called "Stories of American Life by American Writers." She also published a volume of " Country Stories;" a volume of " Dramatic Scenes;" an opera called " Sadak and Kalasrade," and four tragedies, the first entitled "Julian," which was represented in London, in 1823, Mr. Macready playing Julian. Her next was "Foscari;" then "Rienzi" and "Charles the First;" all were successful. "Rienzi," in particular, long continued a favourite. She also edited fpur volumes

of "Finden's Tableaux:" and a series of papers called "Readings of Poetry, Old and New."

Although her tragedies show great intellectual powers, and a highly cultivated mind, yet it is by her sketches of English life that she has obtained die greatest share of rtier popularity, and it is on them her fame will chiefly depend. In these descriptions Mary Mitford is unrivalled. Her manner is inimitable and indescribable, and sheds interest around the most homely subjects and coarsest characters. Who ever threw by a sketch of hers half read r No one who admired a spring daisy—or that most fragrant blossom, the wallflower, which beautifies every object, however rough, rude or ruinous, around which it wreathes. And though she does not trace the motives of conduct very deeply, or attempt to teach principles of moral duty, yet there is much in her sprightly and warm sketches of simple nature which draws the heart to love the Author of all this beauty; and much in her kind and contented philosophy to promote love and good feelings. She was a philanthropist, for she took pleasure in the happiness of others—a patriot, for she drew the people to feel the beauties and blessings which surround the most lowly lot in the "land of proud names and high heroic deed."

"As a proof that we lore her, we love her dog," says an American writer. "Walter Scott's stately Maida is not more an historical character than her springing spaniel, or Italian greyhound. If she began by being prosaic in poetry, she has redeemed herself by being most poetic in pastoral prose."

In 1833 Miss Mkford's name was added to the pension list, a well-earned tribute to one whose genius has been devoted to the honour and embellishment of her country. After a long period of decline and helpless suffering, cheerfully borne, this eminent lady died lately at S wallo wfield Cottage, near Reading, aged six*v-six years.


"The pride of my heart and the delight of my eyes is my garden. Our house, which is in dimensions very much like a bird-cage, and might, with almost equal convenience, be laid on a shelf, or hung up in a tree, would be utterly unbearable in warm weather, were it not that we have a retreat out of doors,—and a very pleasant retreat it is. To make my readers fully comprehend it, I must describe our whole territories.

"Fancy a small plot of ground, with a pretty low irregular cottage at one end; a large granary, divided from the dwelling by a little court running along one side; and a long thatched Bhed open towards the garden, and supported by wooden pillars on the other. The bottom is bounded, half by an old wall, and half by an old paling, over which we see a pretty distance of woody hills. The house, granary, wall, and paling, are covered with vines, cherry-trees, roses, honeysuckles, and jessamines, with great clusters of tall hollyhocks running up between them; a large elder overhanging the little gate, and a magnificent bay-tree, such a tree as shall scarcely by matched in these parts, breaking with its beautiful conical form the horizontal lines of the buildings. This is my garden; and the long-pillared shed, the sort of rustic arcade which rung along one side, parted from the flower-beds by a row of rich geraniums, is our out-of-door drawing-room.

"I know nothing so pleasant as to sit there on a summer afternoon, with the western sun flickering through the great elder-tree, and lighting up our gay parterres, where flowers and flowering shrubs are set as thick as grass in a field, a wilderness of blossom, interwoven, intertwined, wreathy, garlandy, profuse beyond all profusion, where we may guess that there is such a thing as mould, but never see it. I know nothing so pleasant as to sit in the shade of that dark bower, with the eye resting on that bright piece of colour, lighted so gloriously by the evening sun, now catching a glimpse of the little birds as they fly rapidly in and out of their nests—for there are always two or three birds'-nests in the thick tapestry of cherry-trees, honeysuckles, and China-roses, which cover our walls—now tracing the gay gambols of the common butterflies as they sport around the dahlias; now watching that' rarer moth, which the country people, fertile in pretty names, call the bee-bird ;• that bird-like insect, which flutters in th*

[ocr errors]

hottest days over the sweetest flowers, inserting its long proboscis into the small tube of the jessamine, and hovering over the scarlet blossoms of the geranium, whose bright colour seems reflected on its own feathery breast; that insect which seems so thoroughly a creature of the air, never at rest; always, even when feeding, self-poised, and self-supported, and whose wings, in their ceaseless motion, have a sound so deep, so full, so lulling, so musical. Nothing so pleasant as to sit amid that mixture of the flower and the leaf, watching the bee-bird! Nothing so pretty to look at as my garden! It is quite a picture; only unluckily it resembles a picture in more qualities than one,—it is fit for nothing but to look at. One might as well think of walking in a bit of framed canvas. There are walks, to be sure—tiny paths of smooth gravel, by courtesy called such—but they are so overhung by roses and lilies, and such gay encroachers—so overrun by convolvulus, and heart'sease, and mignionette, and other sweet stragglers, that except to edge through them occasionally, for the purposes of planting, or weeding, or watering, there might as well be no paths at all. Nobody thinks of walking in my garden. Even May glides along with a delicate and trackless step, like a swan through the water; and we, its two-footed denizens, are fain to treat it as if it were really a saloon, and go out for a walk towards sun-set, just as if we had not been sitting in the open air all day.

"What a contrast from the quiet garden the lively street! Saturday night is always a time of stir and bustle in our Village, and this is Whitsun-Eve, the pleasantest Saturday of all the year, when London journeymen and servant lads and lasses snatch a short holiday to visit their families. A short and precious holiday, the happiest and liveliest of any; for even the gambols and merry-makings of Christmas offer but a poor enjoyment, compared with the rural diversions, the Maylogs, revels, and cricket-matches of Whitsuntide.'




Theorem III. In any spherical triangle, the sines of the sides ate proportional to the sines of the opposite angles.

In the case of right-angled spherical triangles, this proposition has already been demonstrated. Let, then, Abc be an oblique-angled triangle; we are to prove that

sin. B c : sin. A. at: sin. A : sin. n.

Through the point c draw an arc of a great circle c D perpen- A dicular to A B. Then, in the

spherical triangle A on, right-angled at D, we have, by Napier's rule,

B sin. c D = sin. A C sin. A. Also, in the triangle B C D, we have,

B sin. c D = sin. B c sin. B.

HenCe, sin. A o sin. A = sin. B O sin. B.

or, sin. B c : sin. AO : : sin. A : sin. B.

Cor. l.'In any spherical triangle, the cosines of the sides arc proportional to the cosines of the segments of the base, mack by a perpendicular from the opposite angle.

For, by Theorem L, Cor. 2,

cos. Od : n : : cos. AC : cos. An.

Also, cos. cD : B : : cos. it: cos. Bn.

Hence, cos. A C : cos. Bo:: Cos. A D : cos. B D

Cor. 2. The cosines of the angles at the base are proportional to •the sines of the segments of the vertical angle.

For, by Theorem I., Cor. 3,

cos. Cd : B : : cos. A : sin. A Cd.

J jAlso, cos. c D : n : : cos. B : sin. Bob.

Hence, cos. A : cos. B : : sin. AC D : sin. Bcd.

Cor. 3. The sines of tfie segments of the base arc reciprocally proportional to the tangents of the angles at the base. For, by Theorem XL,

6in. Ad : B: : tan. Cd : tan. A. Also, sin. B D : B : : tan. c D : tan. B.

Hence, sin. A D : sin. B D : : tan. B : tan. A.

Cor. 4. The cotangents of the two sides are proportional to ike cosines of the segments of the vertical angle.

For, by Theorem II., Cor. 2,

cos. A c D : cot. Ac:: tan. c D : a.

Also, cos. Bcd: cot. B c : : tan. c D : B.

Hence, cos. A C D : cos. B C D : : cot. A C : cot. B c.

Theorem IV. // fron an angle of a spherical triangle a perpendicular be drawn to the base, then the tangent of half the sum of the segments of the base is to the tangent of half the sum of the sides, as the tangent of half the difference of the sides is to the tangent of half the difference of the segments of the base.

Let A B c be any spherical triangle, and let CD be drawn from c perpendicular to the base A B; then tan. £(n D + Ad) : tan. *(bc+ Ac) :: tan. J(bcAc): tan. i{BV Ad).

Let B c = a, A c = 6, B D = m, and Id=i. Then, by Theorem III., Cor. 1,

cos. a : cos. 6 : : cos. m : cos. ».


oos. a-f-cos. 6: cos. o — cos. 6:: cos. ni+cos,» :cos. m—cos.w.

But by Trigonometry, cos. a + cos. 6 : cos. a — cos. b : : cot. i(a + 6) : tan. i(a — i). Also,

cos.m + cos.»: cos. m — cos. n : : cot. + n) : tan. —n). Therefore,

cot. J(o + b) : cot. l(m + n) : : tan. \{a b) : tan. i{m — »)

But, since tangents are reciprocally as their cotangents, we have,

cot. i(a + b) : cot. i(m •{-»):: tan. J(m -\- n) : tan. i(a + i). Hence,

tan. J(m + n) : tan. i(a + b) : : tan. J(<i — b) : tan. i(m — «),

In the solution of oblique-angled spherical triangles, six cases may occur, viz.:

1. Given two sides and an angle opposite one of them.

2. Given two angles and a side opposite one of them.

3. Given two sides and the included angle.

4. Given two angles and the included side. 6. Given the three sides.

6. Given the three angles.

I \case I. Given two sides and an angle opposite one of titan, to find the remaining parts.

[merged small][graphic]

Ex. 1. In the oblique-angled spherical triangle Abc, the side *. 0 = 70° 10' 30", B c = 80° 8' 4", and the angle A = 33° 15' 7r Required the other parts.

sin. B c : sin. A C : : sin. A : sin. E = 31° 34' 38".

Then, in the triangle A C D,

B COS. A 0 = COt. A COt. ACS.

Whence, A o D = 77° 27' 47".

Also, in the triangle Bod,


Whence, B O D = 83° 67' 29".

Therefore, A c B = 161° 25' 16".

To find the side A B.

sin. A : sin. A CB : : sin. B C : sin. Ab= 145° 6' 0''.

"When we hare given two sides and an opposite angle, there are, in general, two solutions, each of which will satisfy the conditions of the problem. If the side A C, the angle A, and the side opposite this angle are given, then, with the latter for radius, describe an arc cutting the arc A B in the points B and B'. The arcs Cb, Cb' will be equal, and each of the triangles A O B, A C B' will satisfy the conditions of the problem. There is the same ambiguity in the numerical computation. The angle B is found by means of its sine. But this may be the sine either of Abc, or of its supplement A B' C. In the preceding example, the first proportion leaves it ambiguous whether the angle B is 31° 34' 38", or its supplement i 48° 25' 22". In order to avoid false solutions, we should remember that the greater side of a spherical triangle must lie opposite the greater angle, and conversely. Thus, since in the preceding example the side A c is less than B C, the angle B must be less than A, and therefore cannot be obtuse.

Ex. 2, In the spherical triangle Abc, the side a 124° 63', J = 31° 19', and the angle A = 16° 26'. Required the remaining parts.

( B = 10° 19' 34". Ans. I c = 171° 48' 22". ( c 155° 35' 22".

Case II. Given two angles and a side opposite one of them, to find the remaining partji.

In the triangle Abc let there be given two angles, C as A and B, and the side A O opposite to one of them. The side Bo may be found by Theorem III.

sin.B: sin. A :: sin. Ao : sin. Bc.

From 1*10 unknown angle t it«w CD perpendicular to Ab; th a will the triangle Abo be divided into two rightaigleci triangles, in each of which there is given the hypoth.mii! e and the angle at the base. Whence we may proceed by Xapier's rule, as in Case I.

[ocr errors]

When we have given two angles and an opposite side, there are, in general, two solutions, each of which will satisfy the conditions of the problem. If the angle A, the side A c. and the angle opposite

this side are given, c W

then through the /"\. stf

point o there may / —.......—w"'

generally be drawn / two arcs of great circles c B, c B', making the same angle with A B, and each of the triangles Abo.ab'o will satisfy the conditions of the problem.' There is the same ambiguity in the numerical computation,since the side B o is found by means of its sine. In the preceding example, however, there is no ambiguity, because the angle A is less than B, and therefore the side a must be less than b, that is, less than a quadrant.

Ex. 2. In the oblique-angled spherical triangle A Bo, the angle A is 128° 45', the angle c = 30° 36', and B o = 68° 60'. Required the remaining parts.

[merged small][ocr errors]

Case III. Given two sides and the included angle, to find the remaining parts.

In the triangle A B o let there be given two sides, as A B, A c, and the included angle A. Let fall the perpendicular c S on the side A B; then, by Napier's rule,

B cos. A = tan. Ad cot. AO. Having found the segment' A D, the segment B D becomes known; then, by Theorem in., Cor. 3,

sin. B D : sin. Ad:: tan. A : tan. B. ( The remaining parte may now be found by Theorem III.

Ex. 1. In the spherical triangle Abc, the side Ab = 73° 20', Ac = 41° 45', and the angle A = 30° 30'. Required the. remaining parte.

cot. A o : cos. A : : B : tan. A D = 37° 33' 41". Hence, Bd = 35° 46'19".

sin. Bd : sin. Ad:: tan. A : tan. B — 31° 33' 43". Also, by Theorem HL, Cor. 1,

cos. AD : cos. BD : : cos. Ac : cos. Bo= 40" 12' 59". * Then, by Theorem III.,

sin. n c : sin. Ab:: sin. A : sin. Acb = 131° 8' 46". Ex. 2. In the spherical triangle Abc, the side Ab = 78° 16', A c = 5G° 20', and the angle A = 120°. Required the other narts.

( B = 48° 57' 29". Ans. \ c = 62° 31' 40". (bo = 107* 7'45".

Case IV. Given two angles and the included side, to find the remaining parts.

In the triangle A Bc let there be given two angles, as A and Acb, and the side A c included between them. From c let fall the perpendicular c D on the side A B. Then, by Napier's rule,

B COS. A C = COt. A COt. A C D.

Having found the angle Add, the angle BCD becomes known; then, by Theorem III., Cor. 4,

cos. Acd : cos. Bod : : cot. Ac : cot. Bc.

The remaining parts may now be found by Theorem III.

Er. 1. In the spherical triangle Abc, the angle A = 32° 10', the angle Acb = 133" 20', and the side A0=;3yo 15'. Required the other parts.

cot. A : cos. Ao : : B : cot. A Od = Cl° 1' 57". Hence, B o D = 69° 18' 3".


cos. Acd : cos. Bob : : cot. Ac : cot. >jc = 45° 20' 43".

[ocr errors][merged small]

The specimen of an interrogative sentence given above, is that of a direct interrogative. The sentence is called a direct interrogative sentence, because it simply and directly asks a question. If, however, I put the sentence thus, "I do not know whether the man is good," then I form what is called an indirect interrogative sentence; that is, a sentence in which a question is implied or involved. Thus the sentence, "I do not know whether the man is good," is equivalent to, "Is the man good?" and, "I do not know." An indirect interrogative sentence is, consequently, a compound sentence.

Interrogative sentences are formed in Greek by means of interrogative words. Such words are numerous in Greek, if mly because the language has two forms of words, one for the direct and one for the indirect interrogatory. The indirect interrogatives are formed from the direct, by prefixing to the latter the syllable 6, by which it is indicated that the question rests en the foregoing sentence or clause.

A sentence is formed by the junction of a predicate with a subject. Your question may, therefore, refer to the subject, and you ask of what subject a certain thing is to be predicated. Hence arise what are called noun-questions; that is, questions in which you ask for the noun. But your question may relate also to the predicate, and you then ask what is said of the subject? Hence, who and what involve the substance of interrogations; as, who did it? what did he do? As the questions which ask for the doer are called noun-questions, so questions which ask for the thing done may be called factquestions. Accordingly we have, in noua-auestioiis,

1. To obtain the subject or the object.

Direct. Indirect. Tic, who? riva, whom? ifrrtc, who. jrortpoc, which of the two? ixortpof, which of the two.

2. To obtain the quality of the subject or the object.

Direct. Indirect. 7roioc, of what kind? Ottoioc, of what kind.

?ro(roc,how much ? how great? os-oo-oc, how great. jrijAticoc, how old? Ob-ijxiicoc, how old.

xooairoe, from what country? oTrocarros, from what country.

In fact-questions:

Direct. Indirect.

xo», where? Ojtod, where,

xoi, whither? Ottoi. whither.

icodiv, whence t oTrotitv, whence.

Tews, how? o—wc, how.

jry, in what way? uirg, in which way.

Causal interrogatives, or such as ask for the cause or reason of a thing, are formed by the interrogative pronouns, in connection with a preposition; as, b\a ri; why? roC Ivikx; on what account? itci r<f; on what condition? Indirect, aon, orou iviKa, a<p' orifi, etc. In the same way are formed tome of the temporal interrogatives; as, fttxp' rov; how long? so, fttyp' snxxou; ptxPl£ <>aov.

sometimes the direct interrogative is employed instead of the indirect, the quesiion being put independently: eg

nn pot, jrolov r< vofu£ei£ tvmfieiav tivai;
tell me, what do you consider piety to be?

That is, " What do you consider piety to be? pray tell me."

Sometimes the direct and the indirect are connected together: e.g.

ov yap aia9avopai aov, Ottoiov vopipov t) —mov cisaiov \iytic, I do not learn from you what you call lawful, or what just.

In the interchanges of conversation, the indirect question answers the direct in asking the question indirectly: e.g.

A. ric yap u; B. oorie;

who art thou i who I am?

In English, a question may be asked by merely inverting the oriler of the verb and the subject, as, cutest thou? This form, which is rare in English, is still rarer in Greek, in which questions are generally asked by means of certain interrogative words placed at the head of the sentence. These interrogatives serve to denote Uie view, the object, or the feeling under which the question is put, though some of theia have sov

[merged small][ocr errors]

slender a signification, as scarcely to admit of English equivalents. If we speak of them separately, we may remark that—

1. una (corresponding to the Latin num), whether, implies some

thing preceding as the ground of the question, and an
anxiety on the part of the inquirer as to the answer.
This is the most common form of interrogation; and
often, by taking to itself the particle oiv, then, or the
negatives ov and pif, the particle involves its own
answer: *.g.

Simple Interrogation,
apa pov piuvt)oi)t; do you remember me?
Interrogation requiring an Affirmative Answer,
dp' ou\t pvpov ten rovy\itpnpa cam
is not your attempt foolish "Yes."

Interrogation requiring a negative Answer,
ana pr) tarpoc fiovXti ytvttrOat

surely you do not wish to become a physician? "No."

When a double question, or a question with an alternative member, is asked, ana is superseded by irortpov or ronpa, whioh merely intimates that the question relates to two mutually excluding points: e.g.

rortpov povtp uoi fiovXu CiaXixQijvai, n tai ptra rwv aWuv; do you wish to speak to me by myself, or together with the rest?

2. i), truly, shows that the interrogator has a special interest

in ascertaining the true state of things, and may, consequently, be often rendered by "in truth," "really;" but it is often

[ocr errors]

Other particles are adjoined to ij. These strengthen the original one, as, ij in, >} lijra; or they weaken its force, as, r} irov; or they ground the question on something else, and so give it more emphasis, as, >/ yap, for truly; which, when it stands as an independent elliptical sentence, may be rendered, is it not so?

3. fiiiv (formed out of un oiv, is it not then?), indicates that

the inquirer supports his question on something {oiv, then, therefore^, but is uncertain whether thereby he shall hit the truth. Consequently, this particle conveys some uncertainty, and may be rendered by "perhaps," "it may be ": e.g.

p&v rt at attest;

perhaps something injures thee?

So with the negatives, piiv ov, " does not?" "Yes." puv pn, "surely not}" "No.''

4. aXXo Ti n, forms the direct opposite of fiiisy literally, is it

other than i which amounts to a strong affirmation; the form intimates that the questioner has hit the right view of the matter, and accordingly expects the opposite (also indicated by mXXo rt) to be unconditionally denied: e.g.

aXXo n n aitKOvptv; beyond a doubt, we ore acting unjustly. The n is sometimes dropped without a marked alteration in

the sense: e.g.

aX\o Ti; yaapyot ptv e7c, aXXoc St rte ipavrnt

the one is a farmer, the other a weaver—is it not so?

6. lira and irera, also Kara (sat lira), and gearura, so then, represent the question as called forth by something which excites surprise or dissatisfaction in the interrogator, and may often be Englished by, and now! and yet 1 what.' e.g.

t-f It ovc out Btovt avdpuiruv QpovrtZuv;

and so then, you do not think tne gods have care of men?

6. ri paBwv (literally, learning what ?), rt jrafW (literally, offering what ?), express dissatisfaction in the fact implied in the question: e.g.

rt paQwv Karaippovug ruiv apuvovuv;

■what has taught you to despise your betters f

rt iraOoiTtc aiiMtrt roue QtXovc;

what has happened to you, that you injure your friends?

Of indirect interrogative sentences the single are introduced by ti, if, whether, tav, av; and pi), or not; and the double by tire — tin; less frequently by * — eire and tire — Ij, whether or.

In regard to moods, the same rules obtain for interrogative sentences as for affirmative. Consequently the indicative is employed when the questioner inquires after a fact as the basis of an opinion or judgment.

If inquiry is made in regard to a circumstance which the inquirer does not regard as existing, since, in his view, the condition necessary to its existence does not exist, then, in the interrogative sentence, the indicative of the historical tenses with av, is employed. A sentence thus constructed has its basis in a supposed preliminary sentence, which is commonly expressed, but sometimes is merely understood, or implied from the tenor of what is said: e.g.

it TtQ « npiro, Atwc tffoifinc, ri av airicpivu;
if any asked thee how thou wast saved, what would
you answer?

The subjunctive appears in direct questions when a person directs a question to himself, so as to give the idea that he is undetermined as to what opinion he should form of the matter; as,

ttiriaptv n atyuptv;
shall we speak, or be silent?

The subjunctive takes av with it when reference is made to a completely hypothetical foregoing proposition:

iruiQ av tv fppovtjoavrtc ravra caAwc tvtw iiynautfrai;
how can tne wise consider these things to be in a good


ri rror' av ovv Xeytaptv;
what, then, should we say

The optative, in direct questions, denotes the same kind of uncertainty as the subjunctive, only in regard to circumstances which appear as belonging to the past, whereby the matter looks very doubtful for the present: e.g.

rt aiff\tov Kat canop ten.;

what could be more shameful and base t

The particle av, as in the subjunctive,^increases the uncertainty: e.g.

ric Ovk av patvtaOat ipac voptatuv i
who would not consider you mad?

In indirect interrogative sentenoes the employment of the moods is generally governed by the same rules as in direct interrogative sentences. The province of the indirect interrogative is more extended in Greek than in English, for verbs expressive of fear or care take after them a sentence (or clause) of that kind. The mood depends on the tense of the principal verb, and on the degree of doubt or uncertainty; even the indicative may be used after the accompanying un, if full conviction is intended: e.g.

vvv QofiovpiBa pn autonomy apa ripaprnKaptv
now we fear, lest we have at once missed both.

As peculiarities in the construction of interrogative sen* tences, observe a kind of intermingling of the indirect sentence and the principal sentence: e.g.

ro rwv xpnparw, rrotja xai iroOtv tffrai, paXtara iroGtlrt amovBat

in regard to the question of the money, how much and
whence it will be, you very greatly desire to hear.

rovQ ri irotourrac To ovopa rovro ateoKaXoiiotv;
they give this name to persons doing what?

ri roc" ayyiXXtic;

what is this which you announce?

rivac roue 8' opu Strove »

who are those strangers whom I see?

Two or more sentences having a common predicate s*c

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »