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the King gave the following as his reasons made full report of all the difficulties, and the for imprisoning Mr. Cameron : “ Captain Cam causes which had led to the complications. eron | imprisoned because he went to Ka- He gave it as his opinion that it was desirable sala to my enemies, the Turks, and I had “to finish with this man in peace.” On Augiven him a letter for the Queen, and he came gust 13, 1866, Colonel Merewether, on the without bringing me an answer. Messrs. Flad, understanding that force was not to be thought Stern, Rosenthal
, Makerer, and Kerons I had of, reported to Lord Stanley that Theodore's chained because they have abused me; and requests should be frankly and most liberally the rest of them I imprisoned because I found met
. He said: “It has been mentioned that them together with the others. They have it would be best to try and enter into some endone nothing. I even don't know them.” gagement with the King, that, before the peoMr. Cameron had quarrelled with his secre- ple now going to work for him should enter tary, M. Bardel, a Frenchman, who entered his country, the Europeans there should have the King's service, and tried to stir up enmity left it. I look upon it as most dangerous to against England. He went to the Emperor Na- the success of the whole scheme, should this poleon with a letter at the same time as the be attempted." In August and September, letter to the Queen was sent off, and the Emper- 1866, the ministry, acting through Lord Stanor at once returned an answer. Mr. Cameron ley, expended over three thousand pounds upon also sent back from the country of the Turks, to presents for King Theodore, and engaged artiAbyssinia, an interpreter, Samuel, who had sans to go to Abyssinia. On September 1, been given him by the King, and this man had 1866, Mr. Flad wrote to King Theodore that repeated Cameron's expressions. When Mr. he had been received by the Queen personally, Cameron made his excuses to the King for that the artisans and presents were coming, going to the Turkish tribes, the King very and that he had promised, in the King's name, justly replied, "It was not your business to that after he had received those presents the interfere. Who told you to do so ? Neither captives would be liberated. On October 4, I myself nor your Queen gave you order to go 1866, the ministry determined to adopt the down to Kasala." In January, 1864, Earl policy which Colonel Merewether reported Russell's letters to Mr. Cameron arrived, and would be fatal to the whole scheme, viz., not were taken to the King, who, after learning to send the artisans and presents until the that there was nothing in them in answer to his captives were sent to Massowah. Lord Stanley letter, sent_Mr. Cameron, as a prisoner, to wrote to King Theodore, in the Queen's name, Magdala. He appears to have suspected that in this sense, although Mr. Flad, had previously treachery was at work. On January 1, 1866, reported that the presents were to be sent. In Mr. Hormuzd Rassam, a Turk, but an English January, 1867, Mr. Flad, being unable to resubject, formerly Deputy-Governor of Aden, turn to Abyssinia, sent a copy of the Queen's was sent up with a very small retinue with a letter, which apparently had also been misletter from her Majesty, requesting the release translated. On its arrival Theodore wrote to of Mr. Consul Cameron, and the other Euro- Mr. Rassam : “As Solomon fell at the feet of peans. Colonel Merewether, the resident at Hiram so I, beneath God, fall at the feet of the Aden, afterward spoke of Mr. Rassam's Queen and her Government and her friends. I mission “ as a great mistake," from its want wish you to get them (the skilful artisans), of dignity. Mr. Rassam was received with via Matemma, in order that they may teach every mark of favor by the King, and was, me wisdom, and show me clever arts. When always well treated by him. Colonel Mere-' this is done, I shall make you glad, and send wether reported that “a regular constituted em you away by the power of God."
On January bassy from England could not have been 8, 1867, Mr. Rassam wrote in reply: "I have treated with greater honor and attention.” It already written regarding Mr. Flad, and the seems that the letter from the Queen which articles which my Queen had ordered for your Mr. Rassam delivered to King Theodore had Majesty as a token of her friendship, and they been mistranslated, so as to make it read that are to be sent at once to Matemma." The any gift Theodore expressed a wish for through artisans and articles were, nevertheless, deMr. Rassam she would send to him. At the tained at Massowah, and not sent to Theosame time the King seems to have got into his dore; the captives were in consequence not possession a letter which Captain Cameron liberated, and thus the war between England bad given to one of the native chiefs, request- and Abyssinia was brought on. ing that he might be protected if the Queen's The first troops which were to form part of troops came to the country to take revenge for the expedition against King Theodore landed his imprisonment. Under various pretexts in the latter months of 1867. * In the first Theodore detained Mr. Rassam and the other days of January, the chief commander, Sir Europeans, while Mr. Flad was sent home Robert Napier, arrived from India, and in the with a letter, requesting that the Queen's course of January the remainder of the troops “kasa,” or presents, for the release of the followed. The progress of the expedition, prisoners should consist of artisans, “to give during the first weeks, was slow and devoid light to our eyes.” On July 10, '1865, Mr. Flad arrived in England with the letters, and
* See ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1867.
of interest. No enemy was encountered; the have fared still worse had not darkness put only difficulties to struggle against were a great an end to the pursuit. The English, according mortality among the horses and mules, and a to an official report, had no dead, and only sixgreat scarcity of water. Both ceased when teen wounded, among whom was Captain Robthe expedition advanced farther into the in- erts. On the two following days Theodore, terior. At the beginning of March, only one who had retired into the fortress, sent all the half of the distance from the coast to Magdala Europeans who were in his power, both caphad been marched through. The advance, tives and artisans, into the British camp; but under Colonel Phayre, were misled by a Napier, not satisfied with this, insisted on unnative guide, into a road leading to Messino, conditional surrender. When this was rewhere inaccessible rocks put such obstacles to fused, and the truce which had been granted their march, that they preferred to return. The expired on the 13th of April, the British troops arrival of General Napier, with the vanguard, advanced toward the fortress. Theodore's inspired new life into the expedition. For the prospects had been greatly injured by the dismarch through the second half of the distance couragement which had spread in his army, in between Magdala and the coast, only as many consequence of which thousands of his men weeks were needed as months had been con- had left him. One of the strongest positions sumed on the first half of the road. This re- around Magdala, the citadel of Islamgie, fell sult was greatly due to Consul Munzinger, a into the hands of the British by the treason German-Swiss by birth, who has long resided of one of the Abyssinian chiefs. On the 14th, in the country, is married to a native, and has after a bombardment of three hours, an assault a thorough knowledge of the whole country. of the fortress of Magdala itself was made. Munzinger had preceded the army, and suc- Theodore made a brave resistance, but he could ceeded in concluding, in the name of Eng. not arrest the onset of the English, who peneland, a treaty with Gobazie, of Waag, the trated into the fortress. The Abyssinians laid most powerful enemy of Theodore. Gobazie down their arms. Theodore was found dead, was at that time with his army between Mag- having fallen, as the English were told, by his dala and Debra Tabor, and when Munzinger own hand. The English loss was small, from left him, to return to the British camp, Go- ten to fifteen wounded. The loss of the Abysbazie sent along with him a number of natives, sinians was sixty-eight dead and two thousand to open roads for the British army. Hence- wounded. Two sons of Theodore were among forth the advance was rapid. General Napier, the captives. Into the hands of the conquerors on March 28th, left the common road, ascend- fell four golden crowns, twenty thousand doled the highland of Wadda, and then, marching lars, twenty-eight guns, ten thousand shields, along the Djidda, reached a road which Theo- ten thousand spears, and a large amount of dore, with a great expense of time and labor, silver vessels, jewels, etc. The following exhad made for his artillery. All this time tracts from the official report of General NaTheodore had not yet made any serious at- pier give some details of the capture of Magtempt to check the English army. But now dala and the death of Theodore : General Napier was informed, a letter from “ At the request of Dejach Alema (the Mr. Rassam, that a rapid advance of the Abys- son-in-law of Theodore) I had promised to absinian troops, perhaps a surprise, was med- stain from hostilities for twenty-four hours. itated. General Napier immediately crossed the After the lapse of forty-eight hours, Theodore river, and took up his headquarters between had not surrendered himself. Reliable inforDjidda and the Bashilo, upon the elevated plain mation reached me that his army was recoverof Talanta. The troops marched upon the road ing from their defeat; that many soldiers who of Theodore, which is thirty feet wide, but had been unable to return to Magdala on the so steep that many beasts of burden tumbled night of the 10th had since rejoined their ranks; down and perished. After a reconnoissance that fresh defensive arrangements were being toward Magdala, General Napier, on April 8th, made, and that Theodore and his chiefs even advanced to the Bashilo River. From a second contemplated a night attack on the second brireconnoissance toward Magdala, it was learned gade, encamped on the lower ground. I, therethat the fortress was armed with 28 guns, and fore, prepared to attack the enemy's position. appeared to be unconquerable. But General I had originally intended first to assault Fahla Napier made all the preparations for an im- from the side which fronted our camp, and was mediate attack. Previously Theodore was sum- screened from the fire of Islamgie and Selassie. moned to surrender unconditionally. To this But under the altered condition of the enemy, demand no reply was made, and the British Theodore having by death, wounds, and desertroops continued their advance. When the first tion lost half of his army and his bravest chiefs, brigade crossed the Bashilo, they saw the enemy I determined to attack Islamgie by the King's in front of Magdala, occupying strong posi- road. All arrangements for this had been contions. Theodore did not wait until he was at- sidered and the positions for the artillery retacked, but on April 10th (Good Friday) opened connoitred and fixed upon, when information the battle himself by a furious onset on the was brought to me that Theodore had left first brigade. He was repulsed with a loss of Magdala, and that many of the chiefs, with about 500 dead and 1,500 wounded, and would their followers, wished to surrender. I agreed to accept their submission, and ordered Sir ments of the Royal Engineers and Madras and Charles Staveley to advance on Islamgie, relax. Bombay Sappers and Miners, with means of ing no precautions that I had considered ne- clearing away obstacles, the first brigade to cessary for the attack. The scarcity of water be in close support. I concentrated the fire of rendered it impossible to retain any consider the artillery on the gateway and the north end able body of cavalry before Magdala ; my per- of the fort, which were crowded with the sonal escort, under a native officer, only re- houses of the soldiers, avoiding as much as posmained, and, with a few details of other corps, sible the higher part of the interior occupied was sent under the command of Lieutenant by the Abyssinian prisoners and non-combatScott, aide-de-camp, to watch the west side ants. The enemy carefully concealed themof Magdala, where they took up a good posi- selves from view, so that the place seemed altion until the arrival of the cavalry, under most deserted, although, when entered by our Colonel Graves, who completed the investment troops, it was found to be thronged with sol. up to the Kaffir Burr Gate, which was watched diers who had thrown away their arms, reby the Gallas. The Bashilo was held by the leased prisoners, and the numerous voluntary headquarters detachment of the Scinde Horse, and involuntary followers of Theodore's forunder Major Briggs, and detachments of the tunes. The artificial defences consisted of stone Third Dragoon Guards, Third and Twelfth walls, loop-holed and surmounted by strong and cavalry, under Major Miller, to secure that thick barricades of thorny stakes, with narrow point and provide against the escape of the stone gateways; the lower one built up in the enemy in that direction by the Minjerra ravine. interior, the higher one being seventy feet above A detachment of the Beloochees, under Lieu- the lower, and approached by a very steep nartenant Beville, ascended by the spurs of Fahla, row path winding among the soldiers' huts. and occupied that important position, where The attack was ably conducted by Sir Charles they were reinforced from the second brigade Staveley, and gallantly carried out by the troops. by the headquarters wing of the Tenth nativo Fortunately, the defences were very unscieninfantry, under Colonel Field. Tho artillery tifically constructed, and, though the attack was placed in position, and the troops advanced, was met by a sharp fire from the enemy, yet preceded by Captain Speedy, of the intelligence they could not direct it on the head of the department, with a small escort of the Third storming party without exposing themselves Light cavalry, under Lieutenant-Colonel Loch, to the rapid and fatal fire of the Snider rifle, to communicate with the chiefs who wished to and our loss was, in consequence, very small. surrender, and to prevent any misunderstand- The Royal Engineers and Sappers and leading ing. No resistance was offered. Sir Charles sections of the Thirty-third regiment were long Staveley effected an entrance to Islamgie and before they could force an entrance, and durSelassie through a difficult crevice in the rocky ing that time nine officers and men of the escarps. It would be impossible to arrive at Royal Engineers and Sappers received wounds any correct estimate either of the numbers of or contusions. At length an entrance was the armed men who laid down their weapons found by means of the ladders, near the gate or of the mass of people, men, women, and chil- and by the leading men of the Thirty-third, dren, whom we found on Islamgie. It was ne- who scaled a rock and turned the defences of cossary to collect and guard the arms that were the gateway. The enemy was driven to thó surrendered. It was also necessary to send second barricade, and when that was carried down all the disarmed soldiers and the miscel- all resistance ceased. laneous multitude that followed them to the “Among the dead near the outer gateway plain below before I could proceed actively were found several of Theodore's most devoted against Magdala.
chiefs. One of them, Dejach Enjeda, had “Theodore himself, having abandoned his at- urged Theodore to massacre all the prisoners, tempt to escape, was making preparations for a course from which he was dissuaded by defence, and offering us defiance in front of others. Close to the second gateway lay the Magdala. By three o'clock the Abyssinians body of Theodore. At the moment when the having nearly all cleared away from Islamgie, barricade was forced by the Thirty-third, TheoI ordered the attack of Magdala to be at once dore fell, as I have since learned, by his own carried out. The entrance of Magdala is three hand. His troops immediately fled, some by hundred feet above the terreplain of Islamgie, the Kaffir Burr Gate, which was found choked and the ascent is by an extremely steep and with arms that had been cast away in their rugged path. Viewing the very difficult nature flight. Of these fugitives the greater part fell of the approach, I made the attack as strong as into the hands of the Gallas, and the remainder, possible, and massed the whole of my artillery seeing the fate of their comrades and hearing fire to cover it, in order to overpower the the taunting invitations of the Gallas, returned enemy's resistance and prevent the heavy to Magdala and surrendered. casualties which I should otherwise have in- “The command of Magdala was intrusted to curred.
Brigadier-General Wilby, who held it with the “The assaulting force consisted of the second Thirty-third and part of the Forty-fifth regibrigade, led by the Thirty-third (Duke of Wel- ments. So thickly was the fortress inhabited, lington's) regiment, accompanied by detach- and so great was the crowd of people, that it
was no easy matter to establish order. Guards situated geographically in the country of the were placed at the gates and such places as Wollo-Gallas, from whom it was finally wrestrequired protection. The family of Theodore ed by Theodore about ten years ago, had imwere committed to the care of Mr. Rassam, posed, in his hands, an effectual check upon who was requested to do all that was in his the encroachments of the Gallas on Christian power for their comfort and protection. The Abyssinia. General Napier desired, in the Abyssinian prisoners were released from their interests of Christianity, to place the strongchains, and the very numerous body of Abys- hold in the possession of Wagshum Gobazie, sinians whose histories and condition it was the de facto ruler and principal chief of this impossible at the time to investigate were col- portion of Abyssinia. But when he sent for lected in an open space in the centre of the for. his lieutenant, the Dajaz Mashashah, the latter tress, where they could be protected, and where excused himself, in his master's name, from they quickly threw up small huts for them- accepting the charge, alleging as his reason selves and remained until their final departure. that it would require so large a garrison to
“On the 15th, the Fourth (King's Own) re- hold it, that it would be a source of weakness giment relieved the Thirty-third in Magdala, rather than of strength. Wagshum Gobazie and the Forty-fifth were removed to Islamgie himself, notwithstanding his repeated invitato reēnforce the detachment of the Tenth native tions to the English, through Brigadier-Generinfantry, under Colonel Field, for the protec- al Merewether, to come quickly to his aid, had tion of the captured arms and ordnance and to removed himself and his army to a distant furnish working-parties for their destruction. quarter in pursuit of objects of his own, and it The inhabitants of Magdala were collected at was impossible for General Napier to await & Arogie, where great vigilance was necessary to reply to the letter which was addressed to him protect them from the Gallas, who were lying on the subject of Magdala. General Napier in wait both day and night for opportunities therefore destroyed the gates of the fort, burnt of plandering and destroying them. Notwith every thing on the mountain that was comstanding the friendly relations with the Queens bustible, and abandoned it. Several claimants of the Gallas, their people were so little under for its possession had, in the mean time, adrestraint that it was frequently necessary to dressed General Napier regarding it. One of fire upon them to drive them from molesting these was the Chief of Daoont, a small terriour water-parties and carrying off the mules. tory lying adjacent to Magdala. Werkait, ono A party of them, in search of plunder, even of the two rival Queens of the Gallas, had also dared to make their way into Magdala, where put forward her claims, as likewise had Mas. they were captured by the guard of the Thirty- toeat, the other and more powerful of the third regiment.
Galla Queens. Shortly after the arrival of “On the 15th and 16th the disarmed soldiers Werkait's letter, soliciting that the fortress and people of Magdala made their exodus from might be delivered to her, the queen herself Arogie. Every consideration was shown them, arrived. She remarked to General Napier: and they were allowed to take all their prop “We fought with Theodore as long as we erty. The Arogie defile was guarded by in- could, and when his power was too strong fantry, and their procession, after crossing the for us to resist any longer, my son submitted Bashilo, was guarded by cavalry patrols until to him, on receiving a promise of good treatthey reached Waddeba.
ment, notwithstanding which he was inhu"On the morning of the 17th orders were manly cut to pieces, and thrown over the issued to clear every one out of Magdala by precipice of Magdala; and now I come to see four P. M. At that hour, the whole of the the grave of my enemy Theodore, and the place captured ordnance having been destroyed, the where my son fell." It was deemed inexpegates of Magdala were blown up, and the whole dient to comply with this wish. As news arof the buildings were committed to the flames. rived of the approach of Queen Masteeat, The wounded Abyssinians who had no friends Queen Werkait took a hasty departure, appreto take charge of them were conveyed into our hensive lest she should be intercepted by her hospitals. The elephants and heavier ordnance more powerful rival. Queen Masteeat had rehaving been sent in advance on the 15th, on sponded very effectually to the request of the the 18th of April the force recrossed the Ba- English to close all avenues by which the shilo, on its return to the coast."
late king could have escaped, and thus she The object of the expedition having been came to General Napier in the character of an attained, General Napier deemed it necessary established ally. To her request for the posthat some provision should be made for the session of Magdala, it was replied that, Gobalarge numbers whose interests and safety had zie's lieutenant having declined to receive it, centred in Theodore's existence, and who re- the place would be abandoned, after disman. mained disarmed and unprotected, and exposed tling it and burning all of it that could be so to merciless plunder and slaughter at the hands destroyed, as a mark of the anger of the Britof the wild tribes, which circumstances had ish at the ill-treatment of our countrymen, as for the moment converted into allies of Eng- well as of our abhorrence of the cruelties land. The disposal of the fortress of Magdala which Theodore had committed there. first demanded attention. This strong position, General Napier with his staff, and Theodore's
son under the charge of Captain Speedy, ar. required of Kassa to make submission to him ; rived in England in the last days of June, and according to others, he has demanded of the met with an enthusiastic ovation. He had King, that he send an envoy with money to conferred upon him the title of Lord Napier of Cairo in order to obtain a bishop, and Kassa Magdala. The son of Theodore, who was, has refused to comply. Whichsoever may be soon after his arrival, presented to the Queen, true, the rainy season would not permit hoswill be educated in England. His mother had tilities at present. Amhara, where grain is died in the English camp, on May 15th. The abundant, offers to Gobazie resources which he released Abyssinian captives, namely, twenty would not find in the Tigré; besides which, it gentlemen, eight ladies, twenty-two children, appears preferable for both rivals to remain aland twenty-one followers, arrived in England lies for some time yet in order that they might a few weeks before Lord Napier.
be better able to resist the rebels. The first effect of the death of Theodore, and “In case war should break out in the future, the withdrawal of the English troops, upon the more or less distant, it would take place under condition of Abyssinia, was a relapse into an- very nearly the following conditions: Gobazie. archy. Theodore had been the first ruler for whose army is devoted to him and accustomed many centuries who had acquired the power to fighting, has a strong cavalry force, but his to make his authority felt all over the country, troops are badly armed. The effective troops and to begin the consolidation of Abyssinia of Kassa are very numerous. He has a good into one compact empire.
supply of cannon and muskets, and he has the A letter from Massowah, dated September advantage of being near the sea. But in spite 17th, to the Paris Moniteur, gives the following of his generous character and his proud courreview of Abyssinian politics at that time: age, he is not yet completely master of his “One of the three great provinces of Abyssinia, people. The province of Tigré has not only Amhara, is under the absolute sovereignty of been ravaged for several years past by grassGobazie, who has taken advantage of the hoppers, but is, besides, devasted by partisans English expedition against Theodore, to ex- who, in virtue of certain ancient customs, tend his possessions.
levy ruinous contributions in grain upon the “Magdala, after having been burnt by the inhabitants
, leaving many of them, frequently, English, has been occupied by Masteeat, one of without seed to sow.” the queens of the Wollo-Gallas, a Mohammedan ADLER, GEORGE J., Ph. D., a German tribe. The escarpments of this fortress being scholar and philologist, born in Germany, in inatural, they could not be destroyed. Imme- 1821; died at the Bloomingdale Insane Asydiately after the city was taken possession of lum, August 24, 1868. Ho came to the United by Masteeat, a rival
, in the person of Queen States at the age of twelve years, after an exWerkait, set up claims, in which she was sup- cellent elementary course in the gymnasium of ported by the King of Shoa. Werkait is one his nativo town, and eventually entered the Uniof the two queens ruling over the Wollo-Gallas, versity of New York, where he graduated with in the name of their sons, who are cousins. The high honors in 1844. In 1846 he was appointed frontier of the Wollo-Gallas tribe is Bashilo. Professor of German in his Alma Mater, and
“The country to the north of Bashilo, Lasta, continued in that position till 1854. Having a and Jidjou, were governed during the English decided taste for philological studies, he very expedition by the maternal uncle of Gobazie; early commenced the preliminary studies for but Tapis Ali has commenced to urge the rights his elaborate German-English and English-Gerwhich he pretends to have, through his mother, man Dictionary, the first edition of which was upon Lasta, and through his father upon published in 1848, when he was but twentyJidjou. This chief is popular in both these seven years of age. Ile subsequently made countries, but he is not in a position to resist considerable additions to it, and followed with a the forces of Gobazie. On the other hand, the German grammar, reader, and other text-books. son of Theodore, Mechacha, who is in revolt His dictionary, undoubtedly the best work of its against Gobazie, has returned to Kwara, his kind extant, soon won him a reputation, to father's country. Gobazie has not yet suc- which his later works materially added. His ceeded in suppressing this revolt, and his power works were in great demand in Europe, and has been seriously compromised in the south- several of them, his edition of Goethe's " Iphieast and northwest, but it is secure throughout genie,” in particular, were translated into the whole of central Abyssinia.
French and Spanish. He also wrote much "Gobazie has rebuilt Gondar, the ancient for the periodical press. In 1860 his mind capital, and has proclaimed himself Emperor became affected, probably from excessive under the name of Hazie Tecla Giorghis. He study, and he was sent to the Bloomingdale has recently addressed a letter to Kassa, King of Asylum. His mania was of a religious characTigré, and sent him at the same time a present ter, but he had lucid intervals, in which he of several horses. This latter, who now re wrote magazine articles, or prepared works for sides at Adowah, received and responded to the press, with all his former ability. In the these overtures in a friendly manner. These last of these, he prepared for Putnam': Magarelations have given rise to different interpreta- cine an interesting review of Lessing's “Na•tions. According to some, Gobazie has simply than the Wise."