place of hundredths, by 5, if the shillings be odd; and the third place by 1 when the farthings exceed 12, and by 2 when they exceed 36. EXAMPLES. 1. Find the decimal of 7s. 9 d. by inspection. ,3 =} 6s. 5 for the odd shillings. £. ,391=decimal required. 2. Find the decimal expression of 16s. 4 d. and 17s. 84d. Ans. £ ,819, and £ ,885 3. Write down £47 18 101 in a decimal expression. Ans. £47,943 4. Reduce £1 8s. 2d. to an equivalent decimal. Ans. £1,40 PROBLEM II. a short and easy method to find the value of any decimal of a pound by inspection. RULE.—Double the first figure, or place of tenths, for shillings, and if the second figure be 5, or more than 5, reckon another shilling; then, after this 5 is deducted, call the figures in the second and third places so many farthings, abating 1 when they are above 12, and 2 when above 36, and the result will be the answer. Note.-. When the decimal has but 2 figures, if any thing remains after the shillings are taken out, a cipher must be annexed to the left hand, or supposed to be so. EXAMPLES. 1. Find the value of £. ,679 by inspection. 12s=double of 6 [deducted out of 7 2. Find the value of £.,876 by inspection. Ans. 17s.64d. 3. Find the value of £.,842 by inspection. Ans. 16s. 10 do 4. Find the value of £.,097 by inspection. Ans. ls. 11 d. REDUCTION OF CURRENCIES. Rules for reducing the Currencies of the several United States* into Federal Money. CASE I. and Tennessee. Rule.- 1. When the sum consists of pounds only, annex a cipnoz to the pounds, and divide by half the number of shillings in a dollar, the quotient will be dollars.t 2. But if the sum consists of pounds, shillings, pence, &c. bring the given sum into shillings, and reduce the pence and farthings to a de. cimal of a shilling; annex said decimal to the shillings, with a decimal point between, then divide the whole by the number of shillings con. lained in a dollar, and the quotient will be dollars, cents, mills, &c. Nerein Creolina.} EXAMPLES. cts. 1. Reduce 731. New-England and Virginia currency, to Federal moncy. 3)730 $243}=243 33 2. Reduce 45l. 15s. 7 d. New-England currency, to fede. 20 [ral money. d. A dollar=6)915,625 12)7,500 * Formerly the pound was of the same sterling value in all the colonies as in Great Britain, and a Spanish Dollar worth 4s. 6.—but the legisla tures of the different colonies emitted bills of credit, which afterwards de preciated in their value, in some states more, in others less, &c. Thus a dollar is reckoned in South- Carolina, 73. 60. 4s. 8d. Kentucky, and Delaware, and and Georgia, } 88 # Adding a cipher to the pounds, multiplies the whole by 10, bringing them into tenths of a pound; then because a dollar is just three tenths of a pound, N. E. currency, dividing those lenths by 3, brings them into dollain &c. See Note, page 78. Note. I farthing is ,25 ) which annex to the pence, and 2 ,50 3 1,75 divide by 12, you will have the ,75 ) decimal required. 3. Reduce 3451, 10s. 11 d. New Hampshire, &c. currency, to Spanish milled dollars, or federal money. £345 10 11} d. 12)11,2500 6)6910,9375 ,9375 decimal. $1151,8229+ Ans. 4. Reduce 105l. 14s. 3 d. New-York and North-Caroli. na currency, to federal money. £105 14 33 d 20 12)3,7500 1 dollar-8)2114,3125 ,3125 decimal. $264,289 06 Ans. Or $ dcm. Toen 5. Reduce 4311. New-York currency to federal money. l'his being pounds only,*- 4)4310 cis. Ans. $10771-1077,50 0. Reduce 281. 11s. 6d. New-England and Virginia currency, to federal money. Ans. $95, 25 cts. 7. Change 4631. 10s. 8d. New-England, &c. currency, lo federal money. Ans. $1545, 11cts. Im. + 8. Reduce 35l. 19s. Virginia, &c. currency, to federal moncy. Ans. $119, 83 cts. 3 m. + 9. Reduce 2141. 10s. 74d. New-York, &c. currency, to federal money. Ans. $536, 32 cts. 8 m. + 10. Reduce 3041. 11s. 5d. North-Carolina, &c. currency, :o federal money. Ans. $761 42 cts. 7 m. + 11. Change 2191, 11s. 730. New England and Virginia currency, to federal money. Ans. $731 04 cts. + * A dollar is 8s. in this currency-434-10 of a pound; therefore, multiply Fy 10, and divide by 4, brings the pounds into dollars, &c. 12. Change 2411. New-England, &c. currency, into fe. deral money. Ans. $803, 33 cts. 13. Bring 201. 18s. 5d. New-England currency, into dollars. Ans. $69, 74 cts. 61 m. + 14. Reduce 4681. New-York currency to federal money Ans. $1170 15. Reduce 17s. 9 d. New-York, &c. currency, to dollars, &c. Ans. $2, 22 cts. 6,5 m. + 16. Borrowed 10 English crowns, at 6s. 80. each, how many dollars, at 6s. each, will pay the debt? Ans. $11, 11 cts. 1 m. Note.-There are several short practical methods of reducing New-England and New-York currencies to Federal Money, for which see the Appendix. CASE II. To reduce the currency of New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland, to Federal Money. RULE.—Multiply the given sum by 8, and divide the product by 3, and the quotient will be dollars, &c.* EXAMPLES. 1. Reduce 2451. New-Jersey, &c. currency, to federal money. £245 x 8=1960, and 1960 3=$653)=$653, 33 cts. Nore.—When there are shillings, pence, &c. in the given sum, reduce them to the decimal of a pound, then multi, ly and divide as above, &c. 2. Reduce 361. 11s. 81d. New-Jersey, &c. currency, ta federal money. £36,5854 decimal value. 8 $ £. d. 334 40 5. Reduce 997 65 265 00 5+ 6. Reduce 100 0 0 266 66 6+ 7. Reduce 25 3 7. 67 14 4 8. Reduce 0 17 9 2 36 6,6 ANSWERS. cts. m. * A dollar is 7s.6d.=904. in this currency=90-240=3-8 of a pound; thicre Core multiplying by $, and dividing by 3, gives the dollars, cenis, &c. CASE III. To reduce the currency of South-Carolina and Georgia, to Federal Money. Rule.—Multiply the given sum by 30, and divide the product by 7, the quotient will be the dollars, cents, &c.* EXAMPLES 1. Reduce 1001. South-Carolina and Georgia currency, :o federal money. 1001. X 30=3000; 3000:7=$428,5714 Ans. 2. Reduce 541. 16s. 9 d. Georgia currency, to federal nnney. 54,8406 decimal expression. 30 7)1645,2180 S. Ans. 235,0311 ANSWERS £ d. $ cts. m 3. Reduce 94 14 8 to federal money, 405 99 8+ 4. Reduce 19 17 61 85 IS 7+ 3. Reduce 417 14 6 1790 25 6. Reduce 140 10 0 602 1+ 2+ 7. Reduce 160 0 0 685 71 4 8. Reduce 0 11 6 2 46 4+ 9. Reduce 41 17 9 179 51 415 CASE IV. Co reduce the currency of Canada and Nova-Scotia to Federal Money. RULE.-Multiply the given sum by 4, the product will be dollars. Note.-Five shillings of this currency are equal to a dollar; consequently 4 dollars make one pound. EXAMPLES. 1. Reduce 1251. Canada and Nova Scotia currency, to dederal money. 125 4 Ans. $500 45. 8d. or 56/1. to the dollar i=in of a pound ; kerefore x 30:7. |