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AFRICA. The year 1868 is memorable in populations, ravaged with cholera, ruined by · the bistory of Africa for the English-Abyssin- invasions of locusts such as were never before ian war. (See ABYSSINIA.)
seen in the memory of man, and suffering two It is now generally conceded that the Suez years of drought, were, in the summer of 1868, Canal, the greatest engineering work of history, plunged into the deepest suffering. Fortuwill be a success. Vessels of light draught al- nately, in Algeria a good harvest repaired, so ready pass it, but it will yet require a very far as it was possible, the losses experienced large expenditure of money before the work by those tribes in the earlier months of the is thoroughly completed so that a ship drawing year, and it was hoped that the wants of the twenty-five feet of water can pass from the coming winter might be met by the provisions Mediterranean to the Red Sea. When com- made for giving employment, by the exercise pleted, the work cannot fail to have a power- of charity, and various kinds of assistance juful influence upon developing the resources of diciously rendered." Egypt and promoting civilization in Eastern The insecurity of foreign residents in Tunis Africa. (See EGYPT.)
led to strong remonstrances on the part of The states of Northern Africa, especially France and other powers; for a time, the Algeria and Morocco, again suffered from a French consul broke off diplomatic relations frightful famine. About Algeria, a letter from with the Tunisian government, but in May & the Rev. J. B. Ginsburg, dated Algiers, July new convention was concluded, satisfying the 10, 1868, gives the following information : . demands of France.
** The famine brought on by drought and the An important change took place in the govplague of locusts and cholera has exhausted ernment of the island of Madagascar. The the native resources, gradually assuming most Queen Raosheima, who, though not a persecudistressing proportions, and literally decimat- tor of Christianity, was opposed to its proging the native population. They die, not from ress, died, and her successor showed herself at any disease, but from starvation. They first oncé a zealous patron of the Christian missions. fed on the grass of the field and the leaves of In consequence of this change of policy, a trees; the filth collected in dust-carts was a strong feeling in favor of Christianity has set larry. They then dug out and ate animals in among all classes of the population, and a which had died from starvation. In travelling, speedy Christianization of the whole country is I saw these creatures, shrunk to skin and bone, looked for. Madagascar has now treaties with surrounding the dwarf palms and thistles, many of the Christian countries. That with the which they thought delicious fare. Voracious United States was promulgated by President jackals are deprived of any chance animal ly- Johnson in October, 1868. (See MADAGASCAR.) ing dead in the country. Men attack carts To put an end to the war between the laden with manure, and pull out the cabbage- Orange Free State and the Basutos, Governor stalks and turnip-tops. Women grub in the Wodehouse, of the Cape colony, at the beginhorse-litter for the undigested grains of corn ning of the year, declared the Basutos to be and barley, and wash and eat them with avid- taken under the British protectorate. In deity. Children throw themselves upon the fiance of this notice, President Brand, of the sweepings of the house, and dispute with the Orange Free State, continued the war, and met dogs the bones and other pitiful refuse found with marked success. The Basuto strongholds upon the heaps of rubbish, smash and gnaw Tandjesberg and Treine were captured. At them. This appalling distress at last impelled the former, Bushuli, the brother of Moshesh the famished beings to acts of violence and un- (chief of the Basutos), was killed. On Febheard-of vileness and cannibalism. They at- ruary 22d, the Free State burghers captured, tacked men and beasts, and even killed their own with the loss of only three men, the native children, salted, and ate them. In spite of hun- stronghold Kilme, with 1,500 horses, 8,000 dreds of thousands of francs sent over from sheep and goats, and 11,000 head of catFrance, the famished Bedouins perish in incredi- tle. " In March Governor Wodehouse issued ble numbers. Bodies are still found side by a proclamation, declaring the Basutos British side in the ditches, on the high-roads, or in the subjects, and the country inhabited by them brooks, devoured by hyenas or jackals." British territory. The commander of the Eng
In Morocco the situation was reported to be lish frontier police in Basuto-land, Sir Walter even worse than in Algeria. According to Currie, wrote to Commandant Joubert (of the an account in the Paris Constitutionnel, num. Orange Free State), requesting him to abstain bers of persons were constantly dying of hun- from any acts of aggression against the Basutos, ger. The roads were covered every morning and informing him that if any such were atwith the dying and the dead. The rich were tempted he should feel bound to aid the Basupowerless to save these poor creatures; and tos in resisting them. To this the commandthe number of those who perished, either of ant replied that he had no instructions to achunger or the epidemic, was estimated at one- knowledge Sir Walter's authority, and refourth of the entire population. “It is not, as quested that he would restrain the Basutos, will be seen," says the Constitutionnel, “Al- and clear them out of the conquered territory. geria alone which has just passed through a An offer of the governor of the Free State of deplorable crisis. In Tunis, as in Morocco, the three hundred farms in the Basuto territory,
to be held under British title, was submitted Among the most important of the native by the president to the Volksraad of the Free states belong, besides Morocco, Tunis, Tripoli, State, and rejected by them. The Volksraad and Egypt, the area and population of which decided to send a deputation to the British have been given in the above list, the followGovernment to represent their case; and they ing: Liberia, 9,567 square miles, 717,500 inrequested Governor Wodehouse to stay all pro- habitants;. Abyssinia 158,392 square miles, ceedings till the result should be known. The 3,000,000 inhabitants; the Orange Free State, governor said he would consent if the presi- 48,049 square miles, 50,000 inhabitants; the dent would give guarantees for the preserva- Transvaal Republic, 77,964 square miles, 120,tion of peace in the mean time. The president's 000 inhabitants; Madagascar, 232,315 square reply did not lead to a perfect understanding, miles, 5,000,000 inhabitants. but subsequently the Free State relinquished Christianity is steadily advancing in Africa. the hostile position it had assumed in reference It is the ruling religion in the large possesto the British protection of Basutoland, and a sions and dependencies of England, France, deputation waited upon Governor Wodehouse Spain, Portugal, Netherlands, in Abyssinia, to inquire if there was any possibility of the Liberia, the Orange Free State, and the TransFree State joining the Federal Union with the vaal Republic. To these states Madagascar South-African colonies, and annexing it to the will soon be added, as the new Queen favors British crown, to which the governor returned Christianity, and the Christianization of the a very guarded reply.
country makes rapid progress. The populaThe President of the Transvaal Republic, tion which is in connection with or under the Prætorius, has annexed, by proclamation, á influence of the Protestant Church is estimaterritory about three times the size of the ted as follows: British possessions, 500,000; present republic. It has become known that, Algeria, 10,000; Egypt, 10,000; Liberia, 40,in the northern districts of this republic, de- 000; Madagascar, 50,000; Orange Free State, based Europeans, taking advantage of the dis- 15,000; Transvaal Republic, 30,000; Kaffratance of the district from the centres of popu- ria, and Basuto Territory, 30,000; total 685,lation and power, have revived the slave- 000. The Roman Catholic population is estitrade in its worst form. A strong movement mated at 1,106,200 : embracing 140,000 in the for putting down this new slave-trade has British possessions; 133,000 in the French; begun in the towns. The discovery of rich 439,000 in the Portuguese; 12,000 in the gold-fields in the republic and in the neighbor- Spanish ; 100,000 in Angola, Benguela, and ing districts has, of late, called special atten- Mozambique; 190,000 in Algeria; 50,000 in tion to this republic (see TransvaaL REPUBLIC). Egypt; 30,000 in Abyssinia; 200 in Morocco;
The expedition which the Portuguese, in 10,000 in Tunis and Tripoli; and 2,000 in Mozambique, undertook into the exterior, had Madagascar. About 3,000,000 in Abyssinia a fatal issue, the larger portion of the expedi- and 200,000 in Egypt, are connected with tion being massacred by the natives.
Eastern Churches; making the total Christian The following table exhibits the area and population of Africa about 5,000,000. population of the principal divisions of Africa.* AGRICULTURE. In the article AGRICUL
TURE, in the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for the year
1867, it was found impossible to obtain accu259,593 2,750,000
rate statistics of the crops of that year, owing Algeria..
258,317 2,921,246 to an unusual delay in making the returns to
45,710 950,000 Tripoli (inclusive of Barca and
the Agricultural Department of the GovernFezzan).
314,423 750,000 ment. They were not, in fact, collated and Egyptian Territory.
659,081 7,465,000 Sahara.
published in full till about the first of June, Mohammedan empires of the
1868. The estimates given were, however, a Middle Sondan.
631,017 38,800,000 very close approximation to the actual figures, The Western Soudan, inclusive of Liberia, Dahomey, French,
as a comparison of the following tables with British Portuguese,
the estimates of that volume will demonstrate. Dutch possessions.
818,536 38,500,000 Eastern Africa (including Abys
For further comparison, and as indicating the sinia).
1,594,550 29,700,000 advance in the quantity of agricultural prodSouth Africa (inclusive of the Or
ucts, we give the aggregates of 1850 and of ange Free State, the Transvaal Republic, and the Basu
1860 also: to Territory).
1,965,974 16,000,000 Equatorial Territory...
1,722, 264 43,000,000 Islands in the Atlantic Ocean...
115,063 Islands in the Indian Ocean (inclusive of Madagascar).... 237,994
bushels. 592,071,104 838,792,740 768,320,000
...do.... 100,485,944 173,104,921 217,875,400 11,556,663+ 190,950,609 Rye..
146,584,199 172,643,185 275,098,000 * The above figures are taken from Behm's Geographi
Barley. ..do.... 5,167,015 15,825,898 25,727,000
Buckwheat..do... 8,956,912 sches Jahrbuch, vol. i. (Gotha, 1868), which is generally ac
Potatoes.....do. 65,797,896 111,148,867 knowledged as a standard authority on geographical sub
Tobacco ...pounds. 199,752,655 434, 209,461 323,724,000 jects. + As several inland lakes are not included in the above
13,838,642 19,083,896 26,277,000
bales list of countries, this total is somewhat larger than the
2,300,000 aggregate of the above figures.
.... pounds. 52,516,959 60,264,913 | 112,000,000
Following the same order in regard to crops, season. The crop was not far from 272,000,000 we give our usual brief notes of the crops of bushels. 1868:
BARLEY is one of the smaller cereal crops, The Maize, or INDIAN Cor crop, though except on the Pacific, where it takes the place much better than that of 1867, and of larger to a great extent of Indian corn. In the Atamount than the crop of 1859–60 (specified lantic and central States it is mainly grown for above), is yet a decrease in proportion to the malt. The crop east of the Mississippi was increase of population. The Pacific States and smaller than last year; west of that river, and Territories are unsuited to the production of especially on the Pacific cost, it was somewhat Indian corn, and the amount raised there is larger. It did not probably exceed 25,000,000 very slight. Leaving these States and Terri- bushels. tories out of the account, the corn crop of 1868 BUCKWHEAT was deficient in several of the was, in round numbers, 905,178,000 bushels. States where it is grown. In Connecticut, Its quality was generally very good, though in New Jersey, Minnesota, and California it was Iowa, Southern Illinois, and some other low quite up to the average. The yield in the aglands, there was more smut than usual. gregate was nearly 21,000,000 bushels.
The Wheat crop is slightly larger than last The Potato crop has favorably disappointed year, though it will not probably exceed 225,- the farmers. It was thought early in the sea000,000 bushels. The promise of the early son that it would prove seriously deficient in summer was not realized at the harvest. The Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, New York, and acreage devoted to wheat was considerably Pennsylvania, and that these great deficiencies greater than the previous year, but it is a fact would reduce the aggregate below that of last which ought to excite alarm, that the yield to year, though Southern New England, New the acre in the older wheat-fields is rapidly de- Jersey, Delaware, the Gulf States, and Califorcreasing. Land which, twenty years ago, nia reported a more than average crop. The yielded twenty-eight to thirty bushels to the aggregate production, however, proves to be acre, and ten years ago from eighteen to twen- about 11 per cent. in advance of last year, and ty-two bushels, now produces only from nine though it does not approach to the enormous to twelve bushels, and wheat is ceasing to be a crop of 1859, it will probably not fall below paying crop. The whole wheat-growing re- 75,000,000 bushels. The sweet-potato crop is gion east of the Mississippi has, within ten also larger than last year. years past, barely held its own—Wisconsin, Tobacco is an uncertain crop, though, when Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, and Ohio, but just successful, a profitable one. The returns are making up the deficiency in New York, Penn- incomplete, even from the States where it is sylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, and most largely grown, bnt, so far as can be deterthe other States of the Atlantic slope. The mined, indicate a crop of about 332,000,000 of production of even the most fertile of these pounds. States, to the acre, is decreasing year by year, The Hay crop was almost uniformly good, and their aggregates are only kept up or in- Florida and Kansas being the only marked excreased by the enlarged area devoted to this ceptions, and in neither State is the hay crop crop. On the other hand, the territory lying of prime importance. The returns indicate a between the Mississippi River and the Pacific yield of about 32,500,000 tons. Ocean, which, in 1859, produced but 25,000,000 Cotton, concerning which there were seribushels
, harvested, in 1868, above 65,000,000 ous apprehensions during the summer from the bushels, more than one-fourth of the whole depredations of the army worm, proves to have being yielded by California. The yield to the somewhat exceeded the aggregate of last year, acre in that State is between thirty and forty though upon fewer acres. The following is busbels. The cause of this decreased produc- the estimate of the Commissioner of Agricultion in the States east of the Mississippi is the ture in December, which, as he himself acknowlabstraction, by continued cropping, of those edges, was undonbtedly below the truth. Later constituents of the soil which go to the making reports bring up the aggregate to fully 2,500,of the wheat culm and berry. If these can be 000 bales of 400 lbs. each. restored to the soil in full, the old yield per acre ought to be regained.
140,000 South Carolina..
180,000 Rye, never a large crop, differs but little in
290,000 amount from last year, with possibly a small Florida..
35,000 gain from the greater plumpness of the berry, Alabama.
285,000 It may safely be put down at 24,000,000
260,000 Oats are a very important crop. The yield Arkansas..
265,000 was light in most of the Atlantic States; not Tennessee..
200,000 a full average in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Other States..
75,000 Iowa, but west of the Mississippi above the average. In California, oats are extensively
2,380,000 mowed for hay before the grain is ripe, the The Wool crop is somewhat smaller than in ordinary grasses not enduring the long dry 1867. This was due to the protracted depres
sion in woollen manufactures, which has caused the vicinity of Lakes Erie and Ontario, in Miss many wool - growers to sell both lambs and souri, and in California, they were abundant ewes to the butchers, as the most profitable and of excellent quality. The culture of the method of disposing of them. The markets grape, both for the fruit and for wine, has athave been throughout the year glutted with car- tained such magnitude in our country that it casses of mutton; and the number of sheep, must be regarded as one of the most important which had increased with great rapidity during
of the minor crops.
Its annual product in the past seven or eight years, must have dimin- fruit and wine is not less than ten millions of ished during the year 1868. The wool-clip is dollars, and it is increasing in a very rapid stated at 104,000,000 pounds.
ratio. In the Southern States, grape-culture Of other crops less universally cultivated, has excited less attention, especially with refSORGHUM seems to have been about the same erence to the manufacture of wine. The vain quality as last year; the Sugar from the rieties of the grape most in favor at the North Cane, which is made in only five States to any have not generally proved as successful at the extent, viz., Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, Texas, South; and though the Catawba, Norton's Virand Arkansas, was a much larger crop than in ginia, and the Herbemont, were all grapes of any previous year since 1860, in Louisiana the Southern origin, neither the Southern Atlantic production being more than twice that of 1867, nor the Gulf States have given any great attenand in the other States from 15 to 30 per cent. tion to their development.
A native grape more. The production of Sugar from the of very marked character, and though possessSUGAR Beer, though it has not yet attained ing some faults, yet apparently well adapted to to any considerable prominence, is increasing, the production of some classes of wines, has not only in Illinois, but also in California, recently attained considerable notoriety, though where it bids fair to become an important it has long been cultivated rather negligently, branch of agricultural labor, and in several in the South. It is called the Scuppernong, and other States.
there seem to be three subvarieties of it, the The Hop crop, in 1868, has been for the white, the black, and the purple, all possessing most part a failure; the blight and aphis have similar characteristics, but differing in the deboth seriously injured the crop, and the impor- gree of acidity, and in some of their qualities tation has been so large as to depress the price for the production of wine. This grape, which to about the cost of production. The hop-grow- can only be cultivated successfully in the long ers of the Wisconsin hop district, who in and warm summers of the South, will doubt1867 found hop-growing so profitable, were in less greatly improve by careful cultivation. It 1868 completely in despair; many of them has a positive character, is very hardy and full have abandoned their hop-yards or destroyed of vitality, and is said not to be subject to milthe vines.
dew or blight, to yield plentifully, and to be inFlax has received in several States a new capable of propagation except from seeds or impulse from the new machinery for dressing layers. It is said also to be the only grape and breaking it. In Michigan, Minnesota, Ne- which is free from the attacks of the grapebraska, and California, as well as in several of vine borer (Ægeria polistiformis), which the Eastern States, a much greater breadth of gnaws the roots of the grape-vine, and does land has been devoted to this crop than for great mischief in Ohio and Missouri. many years past. The leguminous plants, The number of bushels, acreage, and value Beans and Peas, have yielded a better crop of farm products for the year 1867, and also than usual, though the demand is not so great the average yield per acre of farm products for them as it was during the war.
in each State, the same year, was as follows. Of Fruits, the apple crop in Maine, New The value of these statistics in indicating the Hampshire, Massachusetts, North Carolina, degeneration of the soil for staple crops, and Georgia, most of the Gulf States, Minnesota, the importance of the agricultural interest, Kansas, and California, was above the average, cannot be overestimated : in all the other States far below. In Pennsyl- Table showing estimated quantities, acreage, and aavania, Delaware, Maryland, Indiana, and Illinois,
gregate value of the principal crops of the farm it was an entire failure, and in several other in 1867. States where it was usually one of the most staple crops the product was not one-half that of the previous year. The PEAR crop was also
769,320,000 32,520,219 $610,918,390 deficient in most of the States, North Carolina,
212,411,100 18,321,561 421,796,460 Rye..
23,181,000 1,689,175 32,499,700 Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and Cali- Oats
278,638,000 10,746,416 172,472,970 fornia being the only exceptions.
25,727,000 1,131,217 22,850.130 Buckwheat..
21,359,000 1.227.826 The Peach crop was deficient, except in
97,783,000 1,192,195 89,276,830 Michigan, Illinois, Missouri, and the Gulf States.
Total..... 1,427,512,400 66,828,639 $1,373,314,130 The yield of Grapes on the Atlantic sea- Tobacco....pounds. 313,744,000
41,283,431 board was very small, and they were of in
26,277.000 20.020,551 372,861.670
Cotton...... bales.. 2,450,000 7,000,000 220,000,000 different quality. In the interior, and especially in the Seneca Lake district, New York, in
No. of busbels. No. of acres.
TABLE SHOWING TIIE AVERAGE FIELD OF FARM PRODUCTS PER ACRE FOR THE YEAR 1867.
Tons. 1 1 1 1.3 1.1 1.3 12 1.3 1.3 1.6 1.3 1.2 1.5 1 1.3 1.2 1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.8 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.6 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9
The stock-raisers of the country have met same way as sugar-cane. How much of all with heavy losses during the past year from this is true will probably be known a year the splenic or Texan fever, pleuro-pneumonia, hence. and other diseases among horned cattle, for a
The immense waste of sewage matters, espefull account of which see " CATTLE, RECENT cially in our great cities, and the startling deEPIDEMIC DISEASES OF,” in this volume; the crease in the fertility of our cultivated lands, mortality among swine, from Hog Cholera, has after a few years of liberal crops, despite the also been very great, amounting, according to attempts to renew their productiveness by arthe statement of the Commissioner of Agricul- tificial or carefully-husbanded natural manures, ture, to not less than $15,000,000. There have have properly excited the solicitude of largebeen also complaints of heavy losses in the minded and intelligent agriculturists. The flocks of sheep in Illinois, Texas, and some most promising plan for restoring in part to the other States from grub, scab, and foot-rot. In soil the elements of fertility, which have been Texas and Georgia an epidemic which seems drawn from it by the consumption of food, to partake of the character of cerebro-spinal would seem to be the adoption of some method meningitis, has prevailed with very fatal re- of deodorizing and disinfecting human excresults among the horses.
mentitious matters, and using them as fertilizThe new textile fibre, Ramie, is attracting ers. This is very perfectly and readily accommuch attention, and is likely to be very plished, wherever they can be used, by Rev. thoroughly tested during the coming year. Henry Moule's earth-closets. The disinfectant Senator Sprague, of Rhode Island, one of the and deodorizer which he uses is simply dried largest manufacturers of cotton and woollen earth, which possesses great power of absorpgoods in the United States, has become so fully tion, and prevents any unpleasant odor. It satisfied of its good qualities, that he has pur- can be used by his system repeatedly for this chased a large estate in Florida to be devoted purpose by simple drying, and then becomes a exclusively to its cultivation. It is said to be more active and perfect fertilizer than the best very hardy, not liable to be attacked by any of guano. The fertility of the cultivated lands of the known insect depredators, to produce a China and Japan, which have been for three fibre intermediate in character between silk and or four thousand years under cultivation, has linen, and to yield somewhat more than three been maintained by the use of these manures. times as large a quantity to the acre as cotton, Many of the failures of our great staple crops, and in the extreme South to produce three or from rust and blight, from midge and Hessian four crops a year. It is cultivated much in the fly, from army and boll worm, from caterpillars