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ENGLISH MONEY. The denominations of English money are, the pound, £.; the shilling, s.; the penny, d.; and the farthing, qr.

1 pound = 20 shillings. 1 shilling 1 shilling

1 penny 1 penny = 4 farthings. I 1 farthing

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12

pence.

zbo of 1 £. I's of 1 s. 4 of 1 d.

TROY WEIGHT. Troy weight is used in weighing gold, silver, platina, diamonds, and other precious stones. The denominations of troy weight are, the pound, lb.; the ounce, oz. ; the pennyweight, pwt. ; and the grain, gr. The standard troy pound of the United States is the weight of 22.794 377 cubic inches of distilled water weighed in air.

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Avoirdupois weight is used in weighing most kinds of merchandise, and all metals except silver and gold. Its denominations are, the ton, t. ; the hundred-weight, cwt.; the quarter, qr. ; the pound, lb. ; the ounce, oz.; and the dram, dr.

1 ton

= 20 hund. wt. 1 cwt. 1 hund. wt. 4 quarters.

1

qr. 1 quarter 28 pounds. 1 lb. 1 pound 16 ounces. 1 ounce

= 16 drams. 1 dr.

of 1 ton. 4 of 1 cwt. ng of 1 qr. It of 1 lb. It of 1 oz.

1 oz.

APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT. This weight is used only by apothecaries and physicians in compounding medicines. Its denominations are, the pound, lb. ; the ounce, 3; the dram, 3; the scruple, 3; and the grain, gr. 1 pound = 12 ounces.

1 ounce

of 1 lb. 1 ounce 8 drams. 1 dram

of 1 Z. 1 dram 3 scruples. 1 scruple

of 1 3. 1 scruple = 20 grains.

of 1 Ə.

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1 grain

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LINEAR MEASURE. This measure is used in measuring distances, lengths, breadths, heights, and depths. Its denominations are, the degree, deg., the league, lea. ; the mile, m.; the furlong, fur.; the rod, rd.; the yard, yd.; the foot, ft.; and the inch, in.

1 degree
= 60 G. miles.

1 G. mile = ob of 1 deg. 1 degree = 693 S. miles. 1 S. mile = Ify of 1 deg. 1 league = 3 miles. 1 mile

of 1 lea. 1 mile = 8 furlongs. 1 furlong Ź of 1 m. 1 furlong = 40 rods. 1 rod

of 1 fur. 1 rod 51 yards.

1 yard

of 1 rd. 1 rod 16 feet. 1 foot

of 1 rd. 1 yard 3 feet.

1 foot 1 foot = 12 inches. 1 inch

of 1 ft.

of 1 yd.

MISCELLANEOUS MEASURES. 12 single things=1 dozen. 24 s. of paper =1 quire. 12 dozen

1
gross.
2 reams

1 bundle.

20 quires

1 ream.

12 gross

-1 great gr.

SUPERFICIAL OR SQUARE MEASURE.

Superficial or square measure is used in measuring all kinds of surfaces, such as land, paving, flooring, plastering, and everything which has length and breadth. Its denominations are, the mile, m.; the acre, a.; the rood, r.; the rod, rd. ; the yard, yd.; the foot, ft.; and the inch, in.

Gunter's chain, used by surveyors in measuring land, also in measuring distances, is 4 rods, or 66 feet, in length, and is composed of 100 links.

1 sq. mile

sq.

sq.

of 1 sq. a.

sq.

640 sq. acres. 1 a. = 60 of 1 sq. m. 1 sq. acre = 4 roods. 1

sq. r. = 1 sq. acre = : 160

sq. rods. 1 sq. rd. = Ito of 1 sq. a. 1 sq. rood -40

sq.

rods. 1 rd. of 1 sq. r: 1 sq. rod = 304 sq. yards. 1sq.yd. = TÀI of 1 sq. rd. 1 sq: rod - 2724 sq. feet. 1

sq

ft. 1 sq. yard=9

sq
feet. 1

sq:
.ft.

of 1 sq.yd. 1 sq. foot = 144 sq. inches. 1 sq. in. = Tit of 1 sq. ft.

Torg of 1

sq. rd.

CUBIC MEASURE. Cubic measure is used in measuring solids and capacities, or anything that has three dimensions, length, breadth, and thickness. Its denominations are, the cord, c.; the ton, t.; the yard, yd.; the foot, ft.; and the inch, in.

1 cord of wood =128 c. ft. 1 cubic foot =

TÀg of 1 c.

of wood. 1 foot of wood =16 c. ft. 1 cubic foot

To of 1 ft.

of wood. 1 ton of timber =40 c. ft.

1 cubic foot =

46 of 1 ton

of timber. 1 cubic yard

27 c. ft. 1 cubic foot 24 of 1 c.

yard. 1 cubic foot =1728 с. in. 1 cubic inch

I7kg of 1 c. foot.

CLOTH MEASURE. This measure is used for measuring cloth, and other goods which are sold by the yard or ell.

Its denominations are, the English ell, E. ell; the French ell, Fr. ell; the Flemish ell, Fl. ell; the yard, yd. ; the quarter, qr.; and the nail, na. 1 English ell = 5 quarters. 1 qr. = 1 of 1 E. ell. 1 French ell 6 quarters. 1 qr.

1 of 1 Fr. ell. 1 Flemish ell 3 quarters. 1 qr. } of 1 Fl. ell.

= 4 quarters. 1 qr. 1 of 1 yard. 1 quarter

4 nails. 1 nail = 1 of 1 quarter.

1 yard

DRY MEASURE. This measure is used in measuring grain, fruit, seeds, roots, salt, sand, oysters, coal, &c. Its denominations are, the chaldron, ch.; the bushel, bu. ; the peck, pk. ; the quart, qt. ; and the pint, pt.

1 bushel

1 chaldron 36 bushels.
1 bushel = 4 pecks.
1 peck

8 quarts. 1 quart

2 pints.

1 peck 1 quart 1 pint

of 1 ch. of 1 bu. of 1 pk.

of 1 qt.

ALE AND BEER MEASURE. This measure is used in measuring porter, ale, beer, milk, and water. Its denominations are, the hogshead, hhd.; the barrel, bbl. ; the gallon, gal. ; the quart, qt. ; and the pint, pt.

The beer gallon measures 282 cubic inches. 1 hogshead = 54 gallons. 1 gallon

= 34 of 1 hhd. 1 barrel 36 gallons. 1 gallon 1 gallon = 4 quarts.

of 1 gal.

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36 of 1 bbl.

1 quart

WINE MEASURE.

Wine measure is used in measuring wine, and all spirituous liquors, except porter, ale, and beer. Its denominations are, the tun, t. ; the pipe, p:; the hogshead, hhd.; the barrel, bbl. ; the gallon, gal. ; the quart, qt. ; the pint, pt; and the gill, gl.

The standard gallon of the United States is the wine gallon, which measures 231 cubic inches, and contains 8.3388822 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water.

The British standard imperial gallon measures 277.274 cubic inches, and contains 10 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water.

1 tun = 2 pipes.

1 pipe 1 pipe = 2 hogsheads. 1 hhd. 1 hogshead = 63 gallons. 1 gallon 1 barrel 313 gallons. 1 gallon 1 gallon = 4 quarts.

1 quart 1 quart = 2 pints.

1 pint 1 pint

= 4 gills. 1 gill

of 1 tun. of 1 pipe. of 1 hhd. of 1 bbl. of 1 gal.

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of 1 qt. of 1 pt.

MEASURE OF TIME. Time is the measure of duration or existence. Its denominations are, the century, c.; the year, yr.; the month, mo. ; the week, wk.; the day, d.; the hour, h. ; the minute, m.; and the second, s.

1 year

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1 year

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1 day

of 1 yr.

1 century = 100 years.

Ido of 1 c. 1 year

= 12 cal. mo. 1 c. mo. 1 of 1 yr. 1311z w. mo. 1 w. mo.

yr. 1 year = 365 days.

1461 1 month = 4 weeks. 1 week

of 1 mo. 1 week 7 days.

of 1 wk 24 hours. 1 hour

of 1 d. 1 hour = 60 minutes. 1 minute

of 1 h. 1 minute 60 seconds. 1 second = 66

of 1 m.

1 day

1 day

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