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12. The School of Medicine, united with anatomy and surgery, is in able hands, and well conducted.

13. The Veterinary School ; where practical and scientific lessons are given on the constitution and diseases of animals.

14. The Observatory is an appellation still retained by an eminent school of astronomy; though its importance has grown far beyond what is indicated by its

It publishes the annual work called la connaissance des tems; a work not only of national but of universal utility for navigators and astronomers.

15. Another institution, whose functions have outgrown its name, is the Bureau of Longitude. It not only offers premiums for discoveries, tending to the great object of finding an easy method of ascertaining the longitude at sea, and judges of their merit; but it is the encourager and depositary of all nautical

nical discoveries; and, in conjunction with the school of astronomy and that of natural history, it directs and superintends such voyages of discovery as the government chooses to undertake.

16. The last public establishment for liberal instruction, that I shall mention in the capital, though not the only remaining one that might be named, is the Polytechnic School. This, for the variety of sciences taught, the degree of previous attainment necessary for admission, the eminent talents of the professors, and the high state of erudition to which the pupils are carried, is doubtless the first institution in the world.

The Prytaneum, the Polytechnic School, the Museum of Arts, the Conservatory of Arts, and the Veterinary School, are new institutions, established during the revolution. The others existed before ; but most of them have been much improved. There were likewise erected during the same period, a great number of provincial colleges. The general provision was to have one in each county, or department, of which there are upwards of a hundred in France. The provision likewise extended to what are called primary schools, to be erected and multiplied in every town and village. This is also executed in part, but not completely.

On the whole, the business of education in France is on a much better footing at present than it ever was before the revolution. The clamor that was raised by the emigrants against the convention, reproaching them with having destroyed education, were unfounded, and, we may almost say, the reverse of truth. Their plans on this subject were great, and in general good ; much good indeed has grown out of them ; though they have not been pursued by the government during its subsequent changes, in the manner contemplated by the projectors.

Besides the public foundations, established and partly supported by the government, there is a variety of private associations for collecting and diffusing information ; such as agricultural societies, a society for the encouragement of arts and manufactures ; and another which, though neither scientific nor literary, is a great encourager of literature. It is a charitable fund for giving relief to indigent authors, and to their widows and orphans.

The Lyceum of Arts, as a private society, merits a distinguished place in this hasty review of the liberal establishments in Paris. This foundation belongs to a number of proprietors, who draw no other advantage from it than the right of attending the lectures, and of using the laboratory, reading-rooms, library, and philosophical apparatus. It employs able professors in all the sciences, in technology, in literature, and in several modern languages. It admits annual subscribers, who enjoy these advantages during the year; and it is particularly useful to strangers and to young men from the provinces, who might otherwise employ their leisure hours in less profitable amusements.

If, in speaking of the state of public instruction in England, we are less particular than in those of her neighbors, it will not be for want of respect for her institutions ; but because most of them are better known in this country, and some of them similar to those we have described. Her universities and colleges, her numerous agricultural societies, her society of arts and manufactures, her royal society, royal academy, royal observatory, British Museum, marine and military academies, her society for exploring the interior of Africa, her missionary society, and her board of longitude, are probably familiar to most of the readers of this Prospectus. We shall particularise only two or three others; which, being of recent date, are probably less known.

The Literary Fund, for the relief of indigent authors and their families, is an institution of extensive and increasing beneficence. It is not merely a charitable, but a patriotic endowment; and its influence must extend to other nations, and to posterity. For an author of merit belongs to the world at large ; his genius is not the property of one age or nation, but the general heritage of all. When a fund like this is administered by men of discernment and fidelity, worthy of their trust, as the one in question certainly is, lending its aid to all proper objects, without regard to party or system, whether in politics, science or religion, it gives independence to literary pursuits. Men who are fostered by it, or feel a confidence that they may, in case of need, partake of its munificence, become bold in the developement of useful truths; they are not discouraged by the dread of opposing the opinions of vulgar minds, whether among members of the government or powerful individuals.

This generous and energetic establishment owes its foundation to David Williams; whose luminous writings, as well as other labors, in favor of liberty and morals, are well known in this country. It was a new attempt to utilize the gifts of fortune, and the efforts of timid merit. It was not till after many years of exertion by its patriotic founder, that the institution assumed a vigorous existence, became rich by the donations of the opulent, and popular from the patronage of the first names in the kingdom. It was from this fund that the one of a similar nature in Paris was copied; but the latter is hitherto far inferior to the former, both in its endowments and its activity.

On the other hand, the Royal Institution and the London Institution have been copied from the Lyceum in Paris. But in these instances the copies have already equalled, if not surpassed, the original.

We have traced this rapid sketch of what is doing for the advancement of liberal knowledge and public improvements in other countries, for the sake of grouping the whole in one general view ; that we may compare their establishments with our situation, our wants, our means, and our prospects ; reject what is unsuitable to us, adopt such as would be useful, and organise them as shall be advantageous in our National Institution.

It is proposed, as already observed, that this Institution should combine the two great objects, research and instruction. It is expected from every member that he will employ his talent gratuitously in contributing to the first of these objects. The second will be the special occupation of a branch of the Institution, to be stiled the Professorate. And, as it is expected from the members of this branch, that they devote their time as well as talents to the labor of instruction, they will receive a suitable compensation, to be fixed by the board of trustees.

The members of the National Institution shall be elected from citizens of the United States, eminent in any of the liberal sciences, whether physical, moral, political, or economical ; in literature, arts, agriculture ; in mechanical, nautical, or geographical discoveries. The number of members shall at no time exceed the decuple of the number of states, composing the confederation of the United States. But in addition to these, it may elect honorary members abroad, not exceeding in number one half of that of its members. And it may likewise elect corresponding members within the United States, or elsewhere, not exceeding the last-mentioned proportion.

The members of the Institution may divide themselves into several sections, for their more convenient deliberations on the objects of their several pursuits, not exceeding five sections. Each section shall keep a register of its proceedings. It shall be the duty of each section to nominate candidates for members of the Institution, suitable for such section. Which nomination, if there be vacancies, shall entitle such candidates to be balloted for at the general meetings.

There shall be a Chancellor of the National Institution ; whose duty it shall be to superintend its general concerns. He shall, in the first instance, be appointed by the President of the United States; and hold his office during the pleasure of the Institution. He shall preside in its general meetings; direct the order of its deliberations, and sign the diplomas of its members. He shall be president of the board of trustees ; and, in consequence of their appropriations, order the payment of monies, and otherwise carry into execution their ordinances and resolutions. He shall be director of the Professorate ; order the courses of lectures and other modes of instruction, and objects of study ; confer degrees in the central university ; appoint examiners, either at the district colleges or at the central university, for the admission of students into the latter ; fill vacancies in the Professorate, until the next meeting of the board of trustees; and he shall have power to suspend from office a professor, until the time of such meeting. He shall instruct and direct in their mission, such travelling professors as the board of trustees shall enıploy, for the objects of science, in our country or abroad.

The board of trustees shall consist of fifteen members ; they shall be first appointed by the President of the United States, and hold their office during the pleasure of the Institution. They shall give bonds with surety for the faithful execution of their trust. They and the chancellor are of course members of the Institution. As soon as convenient after their appointment, they are to assemble at the seat of government, elect by ballot fifteen additional members of the Institution, appoint three professors, and transact such other

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business as they may think proper. But no more than the second fifteen members of the Institution shall be elected, until the last Wednesday in November

On which day a general meeting of the Institution shall be held at the seat of government; and the members then present may proceed to elect fifteen additional members. Two months after which, another election of fifteen members

may take place; but no more till the November then next. Thus they may proceed to hold two elections in each year, of fifteen members each, if they think proper, till the whole number allowed by law shall be elected. The Institution will fill its own vacancies, and those in the board of trustees, appoint its treasurer and secretaries; and, on all occasions after the first, elect the chancellor.

The chancellor and board of trustees shall have the sole management of the funds of the Institution, whether in lands or movables ; they shall organise the Professorate, appoint the professors and other masters and teachers; assign them their compensations, and remove them at pleasure. They shall establish a central university, at or near the seat of government, and such other universities, colleges, and schools of education, as the funds of the Institution will enable them to do, whether in the city of Washington, or in other parts of the United States ; and make the necessary regulations for the government and discipline of the same. They may likewise establish printing-presses for the use of the Institution, laboratories, libraries, and apparatus for the sciences and the arts, and gardens for botany and agricultural experiments.

Thus organised, and with proper endowments, the National Institution will be able to expand itself to a large breadth of public utility. It will, by its correspondence, its various establishments, its premiums, its gratuities, and other encouragements, excite a scrupulous attention to the duties of education in every part of the United States. By printing school books in the vast quantities that are wanted, and selling them at prime cost, it will furnish them at one third of the price usually demanded; and by an able selection or composition of such as are best adapted to the purpose, it will give a uniformity to the moral sentiment, a republican energy to the character, a liberal cast to the mind and manners, of the rising and following generations. None will deny that these things are peculiarly essential to the people of this country; for the preservation of their republican principles, and especially of their federal system.

Add to this the advantages that the government will draw, in its projected plans of public improvement, from this facility of concentrating the rays of science upon the most useful objects; from directing the researches of so many of the ablest men in the country, to the best modes of increasing its production and its happiness ; from having a greater choice of young and well-taught engineers, civil and military; as well as mechanicians, architects, geologists ; and men versed in the mathematical sciences and political economy.

Attached to the university in Washington, and under the direction of the Institution, might be the best position for the military academy, now at West Point, and likewise for the naval academy, and for the mint of the United States. The patent office is now an embarrassing appendage to the department of state. It might occupy very usefully one of the professors of this university. The machines and models belonging to it would be useful ornaments in a lecture room, where mechanics, hydraulics, and other branches of natural philosophy are taught. Such professor might be the proper person to examine the applications for patents, and report pon their merits ; the chancellor might grant the patent. It might likewise be advantageous, that the trustees, when the state of their funds will permit, should purchase from their proprietors such inventions as, in their opinion, might be of immediate and general use ; and perhaps the chancellor might be authorized to refuse patents for impracticable things, and expose to public view such impostors as sometimes apply for them, with the intention of imposing upon the credulous, by selling their fallacious privileges either in whole or in part.

The geographical and mineralogical archives of the nation might be better placed in this university, than elsewhere. Being confided to professors, they might draw advantage from them in the course of their instructions. Thus the Institution might become a general depositary of the results of scientific research ; of experiments in arts, manufactures, and husbandry ; and of discoveries

; by voyages and travels. In short, no rudiment of knowledge should be below its attention, no height of improvement above its ambition, no corner of an empire beyond its vigilant activity for collecting and diffusing information.

· It is hoped that the Legislature, as well as our opulent citizens, will assist in making a liberal endowment for so great an object, and as soon as circumstances will admit; as too much time has already been lost, since the government has taken its definitive stand, in so advantageous a position, for the developement of this part of our national resources.

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APPENDIX D.

THE MORRILL ACT.

INTRODUCED IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES BY THE HON. JUSTIN S. MORRILL, OF VERMONT, AND APPROVED BY PRESIDENT LINCOLN,

JULY 2, 1862.

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AN ACT donating Public Lands to the several States and Territories which

may provide Colleges for the Benefit of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That there be granted to the several States, for the purposes hereinafter mentioned, an amount of public land, to be apportioned to each State a quantity equal to thirty thousand acres for each senator and representative in Congress to which the States are respectively entitled by the apportionment under the census of eighteen hundred and sixty :. Pro ded, That no mineral lands shall be selected or purchased under the provisions of this act. SEC. 2.

And be it further enacted, That the land aforesaid, after being surveyed, shall be apportioned to the several States in sections or subdivsions of sections, not less than one quarter of a section; and whenever there are

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