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the land slopes abruptly under water, these reefs are only a few stony, masonry must have a foundation to rest upon; and yards in breadth, and they form a kind of stony ribbon or thirdly, that as soon as the corals build up their reef to such a fringe round the shore. In places where the land slopes gently height as to be left dry at low water, they cease to work. under the water, the reef always extends farther seaward, For the sake of understanding the formation of coral rocks, sometimes even as much as a mile from the land. From the let us look again at the figure which represents the Island circumstance that corals always grow more vigorously on the of Bolabola. We have supposed that the reef which suroutside amid the breakers, and that the sediments washed rounds it became dry land, through being upheaved by a within the reefs have a noxious effect upon the insects, the sudden or gradual volcanic action. But now, let us imagine outer edge of the reef is always the highest part.

that that peak and that yonder reef are subsiding and sinking In accounting for the architecture of coral reefs, there are under the waters of the ocean. The island, with its present three things to be assumed as well-established facts: first, reef, represented by the unbroken lines in the next diagram that no coral insects can live at a depth below 20 or 30 subsides slowly. fathoms--that is, below 120 or 180 feet; secondly, that their

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In this illustration (fig. 100) A A represents the outer edges A A'B'. You can now see why certain encircling reefs stand of the fringing reef at the present sea level. B B are the present so far from the shores which they form. shores of the island. As gradually as the island continues to sink, so progressirely do the corals work upward; and A'A' had supposed the shore of a continent fringed with reefs to

The same facts would come out, if, instead of an island, we represent the outer edges of the reef after its upward growth, have subsided. during a period of subsidence, has been completed, and eventually converted into a barrier with islets on it. B'B' are the You must again imagine that the island of Bolabola has new shores of the now encircled island; and c c represents the continued to subside for thousands of years, until there was lagoon between the fringing reef and the island, after a subsi- formed around

it a new barrier reef, represented by the broken dence of several hundred feet, is given by the dotted lines | lines in fig. 101.

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A A represent the outer edges of the barrier reef at the level | atolls, as well as in the no uess wonderful barrier reefs, of the sea, with islets on it. B' B' the shores of the included whether encircling small islands or stretching for hundreds of island of Bolabola. CC, the lagoon channel between the reef miles along the shores of a continent, are simply explained.”and the land. On our supposition, as the barrier reef continues Darwin's Naturalist's Journal, p. 474. to sink down slowly, the coral insects go on working vigor- The preceding figure represented to you the gradual formaously upwards. As the island sinks, the water gains inch by tion of lagoon islands or atolls by subsidence. Fig. 102 will inch' on the shore, and the two peaks, X Y, form separate give you the appearance of an atoll when so formed. islands within one great encircling reef; and, finally, X the This engraving, after all, gives but a faint idea of the highest disappears. As soon as this takes place, a perfect singular aspect of an atoll. Whitsunday Island is one of the atoll is formed, and A" A" represent the outer edges of the smallest size, and has its narrow islets united together in reef, now converted into an atoll, and c' is the lagoon in which a ring, " The immensity of the ocean, the fury of the a ship rides at anchor.

breakers, contrasted with the lowness of the land and the * We can now," saye Mr. Darwin, “perceive how it comes smoothness of the bright green water within the lagoon, can that atolls, having sprung from encircling barrier reefs, re- hardly be imagined without having been seen. semble them in general size, form, in the manner in which The rocks produced by coral insects are of immense extent. they are grouped together, and in their arrangements in single Coral reefs are scattered in the oceans, as if in certain lines of or double lines; for they may be called rude outline charts of enormous length. On the eastern coast of Australia a coral the sunken islands over which they stand. We can, farther see

farther see reef stretches that is 350 miles long. In the Pacific there are how it arises that atolls in the Pacific and Indian Oceans extend two groups of islands, the one called the Disappointment on lines parallel to the generally prevailing strike of the high Islands, and the other the Duff group. These two groups are lands and great coast lines of those oceans. I venture, 500 miles apart, but they are connected by coral reefs over therefore, to affirm that, on the theory of the upward growth which the natives can travel from one island to another. Also of the corals during the sinking of the land, all the leading between New Guinea and Australia there is a line of coral features in those wonderful structures, the lagoon island or reefs 700 miles long, in which there are no gaps wider than

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thirty miles. In the Indian Ocean, to the west of Malabar, of the Danish islands, however, the Ainty chalk is covered there is a chain of coral islets and coral reefs, called the Mal- by coral limestone. divas, that is 480 geographical miles long. This chain consists The oolite beds abound in corals, and their limestones are of a series of innumerable atolls, between which no soundings nothing but coral reefs consolidated. Indeed, the coral rag, could be found at 150 fathoms.

in this formation has all the characters of the reefs now The study of coral formations is of importance in geology, forming in the Pacific, Rocks constructed by corals form the as it tends to explain the production of coralline rocks formed principal part of the vast range of the Jura in Switzerland. at earlier epochs in the history of the globe. Geologists find In the carboniferous system are deep and extensive strata

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that in very remote periods in the earth's history, and in called the mountain limestone, which abounds in various forms much higher latitudes than at present, these coral insects were of corals. The silurian system also teems with peculiar kinds among some of the most efficient architects employed by the of corals. Creator in the structure of the earth's crust, and that both From these facts we learn, as Dr. Mantell says,


that the architects and the architecture in the ancient hills were the an atom of living jelly floating in the ocean, at length besame as in the present day.

coming fixed to a rock, may be the first link in a chain of All the tertiary formation, especially the coralline crag, events, which, after the lapse of ages, may produce important supplies numerous specimens of cargophylliæ, spongiæ, &c., modifications in the physical geography of our globe. When while the eocene deposits contain astrea, meandrina, and we bring the knowledge thus acquired to bear on the natural mugenera, inhabitants of tropical seas.

records of our planet, and examine the rocks and mountains In the chalk formation corals are abundant in certain around us, we find that, in periods so remote as to exceed our localities, as in the sandy strata of Maestricht; but in the powers of calculation, similar effects were produced by beings white chalk of England there is no appearance of coral reefs, of the same type of organization as those whose labours" though corals of a small and delicate species are found in it. carried on at this day. “ We are thus enabled to read the It is evident that the white chalk was deposited in a profound history of the past, and to trace the succession of erents, each

As, therefore, the corals can only live at a moderate of such duration as to defy all attempts to determine, with depth, coral reefs could not have been produced in the chalk any approach to probability, the period required for its devesea, except in shallows or near the sea-shore. In some I lopment.”- Wonders of Geology, p. 657.




ending in ooς (ούς), οη (ή), οον (ούν), as απλού, απλή, απλούν,

single or simple; also adjectives of two terminations in oos (oïc) By JOHN R. BEARD, D.D.

and oov (oūv) formed from the substantive voos (voūs), the inind, A DEVIATION from the usual form of the Second Declension

as o, ή ευνους, το ευνουν, well-minded, that is, well disposed; and may here claim the student's attention,

from the substantine πλοος (πλούς) ο, ή ευπλους, το ευπλουν, THE SECOND DECLENSION CONTRACTED.

voyaging successfully. These differ from their substantives A small number of substantives in which an o or an ε stands only in this, that in the neuter plural they suffer no contrac

Decline in the same before the case-endings undergo contraction. By contraction tion, ending in voa and -doa. is meant the blending of two vowels into a diphthong, or some

manner adjectives ending in oos, and denoting that of which a other equivalent. The student must learn both the uncon

thing is made, as χρυσεος (χρυσούς), χρυσεα (χρυσή), χρυσεον tracted and the contracted forms, first horizontally, as aloos, (xpvooūv), golden. In the neuter plural ea is contracted into ã. πλούς και πλου πλού, &c. ; and then perpendicularly, as πλοος,

When the feminine termination ea is preceded by a vowel or πλοου, πλοφ, uncontracted ; and πλούς, πλού, πλή, con:

p, the ea is contracted, not into it, but into ã, as tracted. Thus are declined ο πλοος, α sailing or voyage και ο περι- ερε-εος (ερεούς), ερε-εα (ερεά), ερεον (ερεούν), woollen. πλοος, α Sailing round or circuminavigation; and το οστεον, α bone.


αργυρ- εος (αργυρούς), αργυρ-εά (αργυρά), αργυρ-εον (αργoρEXAMPLES OF CONTRACTED Nouns ; SECOND DECLENSION.

ούν), of silver. UncontContr Uncont. | Contrac., Uncon. Contre. EXAMPLES OF CONTRACTED ADJECTIVES; SECOND DECLENSION. S. Ν. πλοος πλούς περιπλοος περιπλους οστεον οστούν



Ν. G. πλοου πλού περιπλοου περιπλου οστεου οστού S.N. χρυσούς χρυσή χρυσούν απλούς απλή απλούν D. πλοω πλω περιπλοω περιπλω οστεφ οστά


χρυσου χρυσής χρυσού απλού απλής απλού πλοον πλούν περιπλοον περιπλουνoστεoν οστούν D.


χρυσο απλά απλή απλά V. πλοε πλού περιπλοε περιπλου οστεον οστούν

Α. χρυσούν χρυσήν χρυσούν απλούν απλήν απλούν P.Ν. πλοοι πλού περιπλοοι περπλοι ουτεα


V. χρυσούς χρυσή χρυσούν απλούς απλή απλούν G. πλοων πλών περιπλοων περιπλων οστεων οστών

χρυσοί χρυσαϊ χρυσά απλοϊ απλαϊ απλά D. πλοοις πλούς περιπλοοις περιπλοις οστεοις οστούς G. χρυσών χρυσών χρυσών απλών απλών απλών πλοους πλους περιπλοους περιπλους οστεα οστά

D. χρυσοίς χρυσαϊς χρυσούς απλούς απλαίς απλούς V. πλοου πλοί περιπλοοι περιπλοι οστεα



χρυσούς χρυσάς χρυσα απλούς απλάς απλά D.Ν. & γ. πλοω πλω περιπλοω περιπλω οστεω

. χρυσοί χρυσαϊ χρυσά απλοι Ιάπλαι απλά G. & D. πλοοιν πλούν περιπλοοιν περιπλoιν οστεοιν οστούν D.Ν. & V. χρυσω

χρυσω απλώ απλά απλώ After this manner decline the multiplicative adjective, G.D. ίχρυσούν χρυσαϊν, χρυσούν απλοϊν απλαϊνάαλοί»















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to the stom, does not appear in the nominative. In the follow

ing table, however, you will find that a genitive having an v, Noos, ov, ê, the understanding, Oxhos, ou, ó, a multitude,

as in avos, comes from a noun in as ; uenas, therefore, is the the mind, the soul.


word which you have to look for in the lexicon, und uelas Kaveov, ov, To, a small basket.

'T VOS, ov, ô, sleep. Evvoos, ouy, well-disposed, be

Thus, you sec, if the genitire is Xadivos, ov, o, a bridle, rein. you find to mean Black.

given, the word is easily ascertained. In general, then, the nevolent, Κατοπτρον, ου, τo, a mirror.

genitive in Avoos, ovv (o not and voos), Κυπελλον, ου, τo, a goblet. unintelligent, senseless. Τεκνον, ου, τo, a child.

δος Yankeos, ea, eov, brazen, made

Andos, n, ov, known, evident,

comes from a nominatire in o of brass.

clear. Anndela, as, “, truth.

Αδηλος, ον, unknown. epataiva, ns, y, a female ser

Ολιγος, η, ον, few. vant. Εκκαλυπτω, I uncover».

conies from a noininatire in &

Opyn, ns, ý, anger.

Yux? (Eng. Psyche), ns, y, the Epcw, I contend, I am in strife


comes from a nominative in yg soul. with some one.

Bos Terea, os, h, Tegea, a city in Aeyw, I say, I name.

comes from a nominative in v Arcadia, IIpoo o epw, I carry, I bring to.

φος Opeots, ov, , Orestes.

Kai-K21, both.
Aptos, ou, ó, bread.
Eur, with.

comes from a nominative in

and in particular . Λογος κατοπτρον εστι του νου. Τον νούν εχουσιν οι ανθρωποι

comes from a nominative in as, av διδασκαλoν. . Τον ευνουν φιλον θεραπευε. Οι αγαθοι φιλοι πιστον

comes from a noininative in as νουν εχουσιν, “Ο πλούς εστιν αδηλος τους ναυταις. Συν να τον

comes from a nominative in aus, as βιον αγε. Ο οχλος ουκ εχει νούν. Μη εριζε τοις ανοις. Οι αγαθοι

comes from a nominative in 770 τοις αγαθοις ευνοι εισιν. .

conies from a nominative in Els Ορεγου φιλων ευνων. . Τα Ορεστου οστα εν Τεγεα ην.

coines from a nominative in Eus, 175, os, v, vs Αι θεραπαιναι εν κανους τον αρτον προσφερουσιν·

. Οι θεοι και καλον και κακον πλούν τοις

ναυταις παρεχουσιν.

comes from a nominative in np

comes from a nominative in 1, v, us, EVS
Ψυχης χαλινος ανθρωποις ο νούς εστιν. Πολλακις οργη ανθρωπων
νουν εκκαλυπτει. Απλούς εστιν και της αληθειας λογος. Λογος

comes from a nominative in 1, V, IS ευνους επικουφιζει λυπην. . Το κυπελλον εστιν αργυρουν.

comes from a nominative in i

. θανατος λεγεται χαλκους υπνος. .

comes from a nominative in is

comes from a nominatire in ENGLISIL-GREEK.

comes from a nominative in we The understanding is a teacher to men. The well-disposed

comes from a nominative in wv, ous friend is honoured (Departevw). Well-disposed friends are lionoured. To the well-disposed ar many friends (that is, the

comes froni a nominative in w, ws, nûs well-di-posed have many friends). Abstain from the senseless. opos

comes from a nominative in wp, 00 Strive after benevolent friends. Bring the bread in a basket.

comes from a nominative in 175, os, ws Avoid senseless youths. Senseless youths are avoided. The

comes from a nominative in

goblet is golden. Silver goblets are beautiful. Pass life (Blov
ayely) with understanding. Contend ye not with the senseless.


comes from a nomiiiatire in top Remark that as a general rule the subject (or what is commonly called the nominative) has the article, the predicate

comes from a nominative in us

υδος being without it. Thus, if, as in the last Greek sentence, you voos meet with a sentence having two nouns connected by the verb elva, take first, that is, take as the subject, that which has the

comes from a nominative in wr article before it, as

comes from a nominative in ws Subject.

Predicate. και θανατος λεγεται


I wish you, with the aid of this table, to review the ground Death is called a brazen


orer which we have gone. With it you should possess the utmost familiarity before you pass on to the next topic. In

order to assist you, and at once to ground you in what you THE THREE DECLENSIONS (reriew).

hare learnt, and to enlarge your acquirements, I subjoin With the nouns of the first and second declension, the stu-exercises bearing on the three declensions. These exercises dent, if he has thoroughly.mastered the foregoing lessons, are taken from the best Greek authors, and from the Sacred will find no difficulty in any attempt he may make to construe Scriptures. When you have mastered them, you will feel classical Greek. It is somewhat different with nouns of the that already you have made some progress. third declension, the discovery of the nominative of which is I premise a few syntactical remarks. In Greek, as in 11ecessary in order to consult a Greek lexicon with ease and Latin, adjectives, adjective pronouns, and participles, agree effect. I therefore subjoin the following, which will enable with their nouns in gender, number, and case. That is, if the him from the genitive case to find the nominatire ; in which noun is in the accusative singular, in the accusative singulau form substantires and adjectives appear in dictionaries. I must the adjective, &c., be. If the noun is in the genitive give the genitive, because the genitive is, as it were, the key plural, the adjective must be in the genitive plural. If the to the remaining oblique cases. Thus, if you meet with avopa, ioun is of the neuter gender, put the adjective in the neuter you know the genitive must have two of these letters, namely, gender; and so in all other cases, the adjective, the adjectire õp; if you meet with XezuwYes, you know the genitive will pronoun, and the participle, when they agree in sense, must have the letters xeluwv; if you meet with MedOves, you know agree also in form, both being in the same gender, number, the genitive will have the letters menav. Now, from the and case. Thus, we say ayalos avno, a good man; but if we genitive you may get to the nominative, and you may do so use yuyn instead of comp, we must change azados into ayahn. by the aid of what hias already been said. But for this you. Also we write aydda ayugoy Davuasa, I admire a good man ; must bear in mind that the v in uedar, though belonging vut yuvalka ayahny Davuaśw, I admire a good woman--where

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αγαθος becomes αγαθον to agree with ανδρα, and αγαθην to

3. Πελοπι from Πελοψ, Πελοπος, a proper name, governed agree with yuvaixa. Compare the declensions of adjectives in the dative case by noav; to Pelops there were, that is, and nouns combined in the fourth and sixth lesson.

Pelops had; Ατρευς (g. εως), Atreus ; θυεστης (g. ου), Thyestes. As a general rule, a transitive verb, or a verb which has an Observe that the English y represents the Greek v. object after it, has that object in the accusative case, as in the 4. παρ' for παρα, against, παρ' ελπιδα, contrary to their ecpecsentence just given-ανδρα αγαθον θαυμαζω. Many verbs, how-tations ; ελπιδα, acc. sing., from η ελπις (g. ελπιδος), hope ; ever, put their object in some other case; some require the geni- why has the plural adjective olla the verb in the singular? tive, and some the dative. Examples have already appeared. When two nouns come together in a state of dependence, from xavorov, a diminutive of xpvoos, gold, and so denoting

5. τροπος, ου, o, a turning, disposition και χρυσια, neut., pl., the dependent noun is put in the genitive case : e. g., 'O Alek- golden ornaments, jewels. ανδρος του Φιλίππου ην υίος, Alexander was the 80m of Philoy και where Φιλιππου is in the genitive case because it is in sense | pleasing in sound, nom. pl., from ευφωνος (ευ and φωνη, α

6. τεττιγες, grasshoppers, from o τεττιξ (g. τεττίγος) και ευφωνοι, dependent on υίος. When two verbs come together in a state of dependence, the third person plural, passive voice, present tense, from leyw,

voice), an adjective of two terminations ; deyovtat, are said, the dependent verb is put in the infinitive mood: e...y I say; it governs Elvai, to be, in the infinitive mood. βουλομαι υδωρ πινειν, I wish to drink water; where πινειν 18 governed in the infinitive mood by βουλομαι, the former being

7. μυρμηκων, gen. pl. governed by βιος, from o μυρμηξ, in sense dependent on the latter.

μυρμηκος, αη αnt ; μελισσων, gen. pl. governed by βιος, trom

μελισσα, ης, ή, α όee και πολυπονος, ον (from πολυς and πονος), RECAPITULATORY EXERCISES FROM THE GREEK CLASSICS. laborious. 1. Μια χελιδων εαρ ου ποιει. 2. Παντα ο χρονος προς φως

8. γιγνωσκει (from γιγνωσκω, I know), indicative mood, active 3. Πελοπι υιοι ησαν Ατρευς και θυεστης. 4. Πολλα voice, third person singular agreeing with its subject, or

nominative φωρ; φωρ, φωρος, o, a thief, λυκος, ου, ο, ανοίf. ανθρωπους παρ' ελπιδα γιγνεται. 5. Γυναιξι κοσμος ο τροπος (se. εστιν) ου τα χρυσια. 6. Οι τεττιγες ευφωνοι λεγονται

9. χρησις, εως, ή, use ; οργανον, ου, το, α means, our organ.

10. ανευ, without ; τυφλον, from τυφλος, η, ον, διοnd; the 7. Μυρμηκων και μελισσων βιος πολυπονος εστι.

adjectire is in the neuter gender, denoting disparagement, a Γιγνωσκει φωρ τον φωρα και λυκος λυκον. 9. Ου κτησις αλλ' η δίnd thing; διχα, separate from; ελλιπες, οι ελλιπης, ες, χρησις των βιβλιων οργανον της παιδειας εστιν. 10. Η μεν defective (from λειπω, I leave). φυσις ανευ μαθησεως τυφλον, ή δε μαθησις διχα φυσεως ελλιπες. 11. προστιθει, αdds, from προστιθημι, Ι α και επιστημη, ης, ή, 11. Ο χρόνος τω γηρα προστιθει την επιστημην. 12. Πολλαι υnderstanding. ησαν αι της βουκερω Ιούς πλαναι. 13. Ανης ανδρα και πολις | that from βους and κερα; Ιους, Io, from Iω, ούς, πλαναι, καλ

12. βουκερω, ιαιιng the horns of an 01, from βουκερως, ω, and πολιν σωζει. 14. Επαμεινωνδας ως αληθως εν ανδρασιν ανηρ | derings, from πλανη, ης, ή.

15. Γερων γεροντι γλωσσαν ήδιστης έχει, παις παιδι, και 14. αληθως, truly και ως αληθως, τery truly. γυναικι προσφορον γυνη. 16. Παντες οι των αριστων Περσων 15. ήδιστης, Sueetest, the superlative degree of ήδυς, sweet; παιδες επι ταις βασιλεως θυραις παιδευονται. 17. Ξιφος προσφορον, pleasant, from προσφορος, ον, conducine to (προς and τιτρωσκει σωμα, τον δε νουν λογος. 18. Η φρονησις μεγιστον

φερω). εστιν αγαθον. 19. Πολεως ψυχη οι νομοι. 20. Η τυραννις | tive of αγαθος.

16. αριστων, the best, that is, noble, from αριστος, & superlaαδικιας μητηρ εστιν. 21. Ο δειλος της πατριδος προδοτης 17. Ξιφος, ους, το, α sword; τιτρώσκει, υοιηds,

wounds, from TITOWOKW, 22. Οι αγαθοι ανδρες θεων εικονες εισιν.

23. οι!Ιουλrd. Νομαδες των Λιβυων ου ταις ημέραις, αλλα ταις νυξιν αριθ- 18. μεγιστον, the greatest, superlatire from μεγας, great. μούσιν. 24. Χαλεπον εστι λεγειν πρ ος γαστερα, ωτα

20. τυραννις, ίδος, ή, usurped power, tyranny ; αδικιας, of έχoυσαν. 25. Ηφαιστος τω πoδε χωλος ην. 26. 'H Mnoela injustice (a privative, and dukn, right, justice).

21. δειλος, η, ον, cowardly, ο δειλος, εhe coward και προδοτης, γραφεται το παιδε δεινον υποβλεπουσα. 27. Ηθους βασανος

ó, a betrayer, traitcr. εστιν ανθρωποις χρονος. 28. Οι οφεις τον ιον εν τοις οδουσιν

22. εικονες, ιnages ; εικων, ονος, o, an image. εχουσιν. 29. “Ο Παρνασσος μεγα και συσκιον ορος εστιν. 30

23. Nομαδες, the nomads, or wandering tribes, from νομας, Εν βοιωτια δυο εστιν επισημα ορη, το μεν Ελικων καλουμενον, αδος, and that from νεμω already explained ; αριθμoυσιν, they ετερον δε Κιθαιρων. 31. Ο Νειλος εχει παντοια γενη ιχθυων. number, from αριθμεω, Inumber, our arithmetic. 32. Τεμα τους γονείς. 33. Αναχαρσις την αμπελον ειπε τρεις

24, εχουσαν, λανίng, present participle from εχω, I have; it

agrees φερειν βοτρυς" τον πρωτον, ηδονης" τον δευτερον, μεθης τον


25. Ηφαιστος, Vulcan ; χωλος, η, ον, lamme. τριτον, αηδιας. 34. Πονος ευκλειας πατηρ (sc. εστιν). 35. .

26. Μηδεια, ας, ή, Medea και υποβλεπουσα, scowling at, from ύπο, Ωκεανου και Τηθυος παις ην Ιναχος. 36. Οι τεττιγες σιτουνται under, and βλεπω, 1 Ιοολ. την δροσον.

27. Κλεανθης εφη τους απαιδευτους μονη τη 27. ηθους, of character, from το ηθος και βασανος, ου, ή, α touelis μορφη των θηριων διαφερειν. 38. Αναχαρσις ονειδιζομενος οτι stone, test. Σκυθης ην, ειπε, τω γενει αλλ' ου το τροπο. 39. Κολαζονται

28. οφις, οφεως, ή, a serpent ; ιος, ου, ο dart, sting. εν αδου παντες οι κακοι, βασιλεις, δουλοι, σατραπαι, πενητες,

29. Παρνασσος, Parnassus, a mountain of Phocis, on which

Has Delphi; vOKLOS, ov, overheng with clouds, from ovv, with, πλουσιοι, πτωχοι. 40. Αί Φορκου θυγατερες γραιαι ησαν εκ 1 and σκια, a shade. γενετης. 41. Ζηνων εφη, δειν τας πολεις κοσμειν ουκ αναθη

30, επισημος, ον, distinguished, reinarkable, from επι, μασιν, αλλα ταις των οικουντων αρεταις.

(here an intensive), and onila, a sign, whence our semaphore, In giving the vocabulary of these recapitulatory exercises, that is, a telegraph ; Ελίκων, Helicon ; Κιθαιρων, Cithaeron ; I shall take each sentence in the order in which it stands, kalovuevov, called, named, participle agreeing with To, that is, because the learner will here need more aid than he has / ορος και έτερος, α, ον, other, the other. hitherto received.

33. Αναχαρσις, Anacharsis; ειπε, 8αιά; ηδονης depends on VOCABULARY TO THE EXERCISES FROM THE CLASSICS. βοτρυς και μεθη, ης, ή, intogication και αηδια (from α, not, and ηδυς, 1. Μια, one, from the numeral είς, μια, έν, one και χελιδων, εκεί), disgust.

34. ευκλεια, ας, ή, glory, distinction. nom. sing., fem., agreeing with μια και χελιδων, χελιδονος, α

35. Ωκεάνος, ου, ο, Ocedness, Ocean considered as a divinity; sroallow.

Τηθυς, ός, η, Tethys, a sea-goddess. 2. See note. *

36. σιτεομαι, I feed on ; δροσος, ου, ή, deio.

37. Κλεανθης, Cleanthes ; εφη, said; απαιδευτος, ον, untaught, * This sentence contains nothing that the student ought not to know. I therefore leave him to the knowledge he has, or may uneducated; uooon, ns, , form; diapepw, I differ. have, already attained, and so in future shall I do without giving 38. ονειδιζω, I reproach, Anacharsis being reproached ; Σκυθης, notice thereor.

a Scythian. .




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39. Kolasw, I punish; ev çiõov, douw is understood, in the force also exhibits very variable effects, according to the elera. abode of Hades, in hell ; oarpains, ou, ó, a satrap or governor tion of the temperature of bodies. In certain cases, by separaof a province; nevNS, 11Tos, poor ; trwxos, 11, ov, begging; ting the particles and diminishing cohesion, heat produces

combinations. oi #twxol, beggars.

For example, between sulphur and oxygen 40. Ypala, i, old, an old woman, grey-haired.

the affinity is without effect at the ordinary temperature, 41. delv, that it was necessary, proper; avadnja, tos, To, an while at a high temperature these bodies combine and produce offering, public monument, from ava, up, and ridņu, I place; a fixed compound called sulphurous acid. In other cases, on TWV OLKOUVTWY of their inhabitants, from olkew, I inhabit, com- the contrary, heat destroys combinations, by communicating pare oικoς and οικια.

to their elements unequal expansibility. Hence many metallic

oxides are decomposed by the action of heat. (To be continusd).

Adhesion is the molecular attraction exhibited in bodies which stick together by contact. Two plates of glass, for

example, when placed in contact with a weight upon them, ON PHYSICS OR NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. adhere so strongly that they cannot be separated without

breaking, after the weight is removed. The force of adhesion No. VII.

acts between solids and liquids, and between solids and gases.

Adhesion between solids is not inerely the effect of atmoMOLECULAR FORCES.

spheric pressure, for its action is exhibited in a vacuum. This Nature of Molecular Forces—The phenomena which bodies force increases in proportion to the degree of the smoothness constantly exhibit lead to the conclusion that their particles of the surfaces in contact, and to the length of the duration are always under the action of two opposite forces, one of of contact; for the resistance to their separation is greater in which tends to make them attract, and the other to repel, one proportion to the time that their contact has continued. Moreanother. The first, which is called molecular attraction, varies over, adhesion between solid bodies is independent of their in the same body only with the distance of the particles; the thickness-a fact which indicates that the molecular attraction second, which is produced by heat, varies with the inten- acts at indefinitely small distances. sity of the agent and with the distance of the particles. From When solid bodies are immersed in water, alcohol, and most the mutual relation of these forces, and from the disposition other liquids, they are found covered with a coat of the liquid and arrangement which they give to the particles, arise the when taken out of it; and this is simply the effect of adhesion. different states of bodies, namely, solid, liquid, and gaseous. Adhesion is produced between solids and gases, similar to

Molecular attraction only acts at distances incalculably that between solids and liquids. Thus, if we immerse a plate small. Its effect is nothing at any sensible distance, a property of glass or of metal in water, we perceive air-bubbles floating . which distinguishes it from gravity and universal gravitation, on the surface. Now, in this case the water does not penewhich act at all distances. We are ignorant of the precise trate the pores of the plate, but the air-bubbles arise only laws according to which molecular attraction operates. from the expulsion of the air which surrounded the plate like According to the manner in which it is viewed, it receives the the coating of a liquid. A series of phenomena proceeding : different names of cohesion, affinity, and adhesion.

from molecular attraction, under the names capillary attracCohesion is the force which unites similar particles of matter tion, endosmose, absorption, and imbibition, shall be brought under to each other, that is, matter of the same kind, as for instance our notice in the sequel. two particles of water, or two particles of iron. This force is

PARTICULAR PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS. almost nothing in gases, sensible in liquids, and very great in solids. Its intensity is diminished when the temperature of a Having explained to the student the principal properties of body is raised, while the repuisive force arising from heat is matter common to solids, liquids, and gases, we shall in this increased. Hence, when solid bodies are heated, they ulti-lesson treat of some particular properties of solids, such as mately become liquid, and even pass from this state into the the elasticity of traction, the elasticity of torsion, the elasticity of aeriform or gaseous state.

flexure, tenacity, ductility', and hardness. Cohesion varies not only with the nature of the bodies, but also with the arrangement of their particles. To the modifica- the nature of elasticity in general, and referred chiefly to that

Elasticity of Traction.--In our second lesson we explained tions which cohesion undergoes in different circumstances are to be attributed the different qualities of tenacity, ductility, loped also by traction or extension, by twisting or torsion, and

developed by pressure. In solids, however, elasticity is deveand hardness. In liquids, taken in large quantity, gravity overcomes by flexure or bending.

In ascertaining the laws of the elasticity of traction, M. cohesion. Hence liquids, constantly yielding to the action of gravity, and assuming no particular form of their own, take Savart employed an apparatus represented in fig. 18. This always that of the vessels in which they are contained. In small

Fig. 18. drops of liquids, however, cohesion overcomes gravity, and they assume the spherical or spheroidal form. This may be seen in the drops of dew suspended on the leaves of plants; and the same phenomenon is observed when a liquid is poured on a plane horizontal surface and does not wet it, as mercury upon wood. The same experiment can be made with water, if the surface be previously rubbed or sprinkled with a light powder, such as lamp-black, &c.

Affinity is the attraction which takes place between heterogeneous substances; in water, for instance, which is composed of two atoms of hydrogen to one of oxygen, it is affinity which unites these two bodies; but it is cohesion which unites two particles of water. Hence, it is evident that in compound bodies cohesion and affinity act together, while in simple bodies it is only cohesion that unites the particles. Affinity is the form of attraction to which we refer all the combinations and decompositions of chemistry.

Every cause which tends to weaken cohesion increases affinity. The latter is, in fact, increased by the state of division in a body; it is also increased by the liquid or the gaseous state of a body. This force is particularly developed by a body when it is disengaged from combination with another body and isolated or left free to yield itself to the action of other bodies for which it may have an affinity. This


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