In the following examples, observe, that when the sum of any column amounts to more than 9, you must set down only the right hand figure of it, and, must add the left hand figure to the next column. (2). 6214 (3). 5221 (4). 7420 (5). 3150 2403 7540 612 216 590 1368 2541 8481 8732 520 275 430 8610 2464 7300 1000 2541 RULE FOR ADDITION. Write the numbers, units under units, tens under tens, &c. Add each column separately, beginning with the column of units. When the sum of any column is not more than 9, write it under the column: when the sum is more than 9, write only the units' figure under the column, and carry the number of tens to the next column. Finally, write down the whole sum of the left hand column. 6. Add together the numbers, 143 and 8 and 56 and 7. 7. Add together the numbers, 3 and 96 and 5 and 984. 8. What is the whole sum of 26, 9, 18, 153 and 728 ? 9. What is the whole sum of 8, 6, 42, 728 and 4105? 10. What is the whole sum of 44, 536, 827 and 3480 ? 11. What is the whole sum of 1118, 6004, and 84932 ? 12. What is the whole sum of 61297,58 and 389163 ? 13. Find the sum of 423, 315, 531, 414, 612, 234, 621, 414, 711, 144, 621 and 918. 14. Find the sum of 314, 90, 246518, 7, 1101, 47, 3430, 8601520, 2004 and 5674. 15. Find the sum of 1728, 26510, 34, 100, 3261, 9, 245, 1640831, 6733 and 40000000. 16. A clerk received from one man 94 dollars, from another 361 dollars, and from another 113 dollars. . What was the whole sum of money received ? 17 A merchant sent to the bank at one time 301 dollars; at another 214; at another 1109; at another 109. How much did he send in all ? 18. A certain lot of land has been divided into three farms; one of the farms contains 112 acres, another 123 acres, and the other 147 acres. How many acres were there in the original lot? 19. If you start on a journey, and travel on Monday 42 miles, on Tuesday 57, on Wednesday 49, on Thursday 54, on Friday 63, and on Saturday 75, how far will you have travelled at the end of the week ? 20. Suppose 477 dollars are in one bag, 8509 in another, 1965 in another, and 956 in another; what sum of money is there in the four bags ? 21. A merchant bought a quantity of sugar for 2075 dollars, and then sold it so as to gain 415 dollars. For how much did he sell the sugar ? 22. There are four numbers, the first of which is 532, the second 895, the third 240, and the fourth as much as the other three. What is the sum of them all ? 23. A broker, by selling a note for 836 dollars, lost 140 dollars. What must he have paid for the note? 24. A capitalist gave to one of his sons, 13427 dollars; to another, 13025 dollars; to another, 12947 dollars. What did he give to all of them? 25. Sacred history shows, that the time, from the creation of the world to the Deluge, was 1656 years, thence to the building of Solomon's temple, 1344 years, thence to the birth of Christ, 1004 years. How old is the world the present year? 26. George Washington was born in the year 1732, and lived to be 67 years old. In what year did he die ? 27. Three men united in trade;- the first man had 5136 dollars, the second had 1562 dollars, and the third had 756 dollars. How much had they all ? 28. A trader bought four pieces of cloth: the first piece contained 86 yards; the second, 55 yards; the third, 87 yards and the fourth 91 yards. What was the cost of the whole, at 1 dollar per yard ? 29. A gentleman purchased a farm for 3257 dollars, paid 953 dollars for having it fenced, and 300 dollars for having a barn built upon it. For how much must he sell it, in order to gain 100 dollars ? 30. A drover paid 300 dollars for 100 sheep, 525 dollars for 150 sheep, aná 1000 dollars for 250 sheep. How many did he buy? What did the whole cost ? 31. What is the sum of two million, five hundred thirty-one thousand, one hundred and twenty,- fourteen thousand, - thirty thousand and twenty-four, -- five hundred and sixty, -- and seven hundred and two ? 32. The inhabitants of the British Islands, are stated thus: England 11 260 555; Wales 717103; Scotland 2 092 014; Ireland 6 846 949; Army and Navy 310 000; Isle of Man 40 981; Guernsey 20 827; Jersey 28 600; Scilly Isles 2 614. What is the whole number? 33. The inhabitants of the United States, by the cen sus of 1830, were stated thus: Maine 399 437; New Hampshire 269 367; Vermont 280 679; Massachusetts 610 014; Connecticut 297 513; Rhode Island 97 210; New York 1913 508; New Jersey 320 779; Pennsylvania 1 347 672; Delaware 76 739; Maryland 446 913; Virginia 1 211 272; North Carolina 738 470; South Carolina 581 458; Georgia 516 567; Ohio 937 679; Kentucky 688 844; Indiana 341 582; Illinois 157 575; Missouri 140 192; Tennessee 684 833; Louisiana 215 762; Alabama 308 997; Mississippi 136 306; Florida Territory 34 723; Michigan Territory 31 260; Arkansas Territory 30 383; District of Columbia 39 858. What was the whole number? Questions to be answered Orally. (1) When you have several numbers to add together, in what order do you write them ? (2) Which column do you add first? (3) Do you add all other columns in the same manner that you add the first ? (4) When the sum of any column is less than 10, where is it to be written? (5) When the sum of any coluinn is more than 9 what is to be done? (6) Why do we carry as many ones to the next lest hand column, as there are tens in any column that we have added ? (7) Recite the rule for addition. CHAP. III. SUBTRACTION. SECTION 1. 1. Subtract 632 from 1847; that is, take 632 from 1847, and find what number remains. 1847 We first write the smaller number under 632 the greater. Then, take 2 units from 7 units, 3 tens from 4 tens, 6 hundreds from 8 hun1215 dred, and nothing from 1 thousand. Subtract the smaller number from the greater in each of the following examples. (2). 25 (3). 639 (4). 4258 (5). 705684 12 213 3215 4261 6. A farmer having 359 sheep, sold 136 of them, and kept the remainder. How many did he keep? 7. A trader having 2748 dollars, laid out 2616 dollars for goods. How many dollars had he remaining ? Section 2. 1. Subtract the number 1528 from the number 8473. We unite 1 of the 7 tens with the 3 units, 8473 making 13 units, and say, 8 from 13, leaves 1528 5. Then, having used 1 of the 7 tens, we 6945 take 2 tens from 6 tens. In the same way we take 5 hundreds from 14 hundreds. Do not pass from the above example without understanding it. Whenever an upper figure is smaller than the figure under it, we use 1 from the next upper figure, and this 1 becomes 10 when considered with the right hand figure. Arithmeticians commonly call this process, borrowing 10; and, instead of reckoning the figure from which they have borrowed to be 1 less than it stands, they pay i to the figure under it-reckoning the lower figure to be 1 more than it stands. Perform subtraction in the following examples. (2). 1853 4). 2657 (5). 6807 349 4096 *** 6. Subtract 1268 from 1503. In subtracting the 8 units, we use a ten, 1503 that we obtain by supposing 1 of the 5 hun1268 dreds, (which is 10 tens,) to be where the 235.0 is. Then, naving used 1 of the 10 tens, T E Tuwi we presently subtract 6. tens from 9 tens. 7. Subtract 1146 from 2601. 8. Subtract 5428 from 8019. 9. Subtract 258 from 34307. : | RULE FOR SUBTRACTION. Write the smaller number under-the greater, pldcing units under units, &c. Begin with the units, and subtract each figure in the lower number from the over it. When a figure in the upper number is smaller than the figure under it, consider the upper figure to be 10 more than it is, and the next upper figure on the left hand, to be 1 less than it is. PROOF. Add together the remainder and the smaller number : their sum will be equal to the greater number, if the work be right. .. 11. Whạt is the difference between 464 and 502 ? . 1 15. I deposited 1450 dollars in the bank, and I have since drawn out 835 dollars. How many dollars have I remaining in the bank! 16, Suppose a man owes 1634 dollars, and possesses property to the amount of 8150 dollars; how much will he have left, after paying his debts? 17. Subtract sixty-two thousand five hundred and seven, from one million eighty thousand and forty-four. ) |