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44. Sept. 29. Pay Charles French cash on account $10, and charge him $10 for labor.
45. Sept. 29. Sell George Brown 6 lb. butter at 23 cents per lb., and 16 lb. cheese at 10 cents per lb.
46. Sept. 30. Settle Henry Gay's account, and also George Brown's, with cash. How much was paid in each case, and by whom?
Note. — The method of making these entries, and of drawing lines to show that the accounts are closed, may be seen in the specimen pages. Entries are also required in cash account.
47. Oct. 1. Find the answers to the following questions, in the case of each person with whom you have an account: How much does he owe you? How much do you owe him? What is the balance, and in whose favor? Close the account by passing balance to new account.
Note. — The proper method of doing this is to find the difference of the Debit and Credit Entries on each man's account. This difference shows the balance which you owe each person, or the balance which he owes you. If you owe him, the proper entry will be on the Debit page :-“To Balance carried to new account.” If he owes you, it will be on the Credit page: “By Balance carried to new account.”
The sums of the debit and credit columns (which will now be equal) should be written in their appropriate places, and lines should be drawn as before explained. The new account should at once be opened by debiting or crediting the person for this balance. He should be debited when the balance is due you, and credited when it is due him.
The new entry will always be on the page opposite to that on which the closing entry was made. This is illustrated in the specimen account on pages 96 and 97 of this book.
48. How much cash has been in your possession during the past month? How much have you paid out? How much, then, ought now to be in your possession ? Now close Cash Account by passing balance to new account.
Note. – In real life, it would be necessary to count the cash you have on hand, and see if it corresponds with the amount indicated by your cash account. If it does, you may know that your cash account has been kept correctly. If it does not, there has been an error, either in the cash account or in paying out or receiving money, or else you have in some way lost some money.
Persons doing much business balance their cash account every day, but those doing but little may not balance it more than once a week or month. The practice of balancing it frequently tends not only to cultivate careful habits of receiving and paying out money, but renders it more easy to detect any errors which may have been made.
49. Fill the blanks in the following statements with the appropriate figures, and then find the answers to the subsequent questions.
Oct. 1, 1857. On examining the property in your possession, you find that you have on hand —
Casa (The amount may be found from Cash Account).
8 bbl. Apples @ $2.25.........
1 ton Hay @ $.90 per cwt..
Edward Morris owes you...
You also find that you owe Charles French....... 60. What is the value of all the property you have in your possession ?
51. How much money is due you in all ?
52. What, then, is the total amount of your assets, i. e. of all the property in your possession, and of all the money due you?
53. What is the amount of your liabilities, i. e. of all the debts which you owe ?
54. How much were you really worth on the first of October, 2. e. how much did your assets exceed your liabilities?
55. Have you, then, gained or lost money during the last month, and how much ?
SPECIMEN ACCOUNTS. 1857.
Cash. Sept. 1 To Cash on hand-------á 4-2 lll. Apples,
| @ $2.33 ---« 12 “2 tons Hay,
@ $19.63-.. « «“3 days Labor,
| @ $1.75 ---« « «25 bu. Dover
| Potatoes, @ $60.... « ««fbbl. Apples---------
Sept. 12 To Balance from old acc'c |
1857. T. George Brown. Sept. 27.6 bu. Potatoes,
1 @ 8.65 --------.« «« 1 tbl. Apples--------« 29 “6 ll. Butter,
1 @ $.23----« ««16 ll. Cheese,
1857. 1 Cash.
Cr. Sept. 5 By 15 lbl. Apples
| @ $2.25 ------------ | $33 « « « Sundries ----
10 ~ 5 tons Hay,
| @ $16.75 ~ 11 - Cash paid Charles
French on acé't -----« 12 Balance to new acé't ---
FACTORS, MULTIPLES, AND DIVISORS.
68. Definitions and Explanations.
(a.) A Factor of any given number is such an entire number as taken an entire number of tirties will produce the given number; or the FACTORS of a number are such entire numbers as multiplied together will produce it.
ILLUSTRATIONS.— 6 and 2, 4 and 3, 12 and 1, or 3, 2, and 2, are factors of 12, because 12 = 6 X 2 = 4 X 3 = 12 X 1= 3 X 2 X 2.
Again : 2 is a factor of 2, 4, 6, 8, etc.; 3 is a factor of 3, 6, 9, etc.
exactly divide it.
ILLUSTRATIONS.—1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12, are divisors of 12, for each will divide it without a remainder.
(c.) Every divisor of a number is also a factor of it, and every factor of a number is a divisor of it.
(d.) A MULTIPLE of a number is any number which contains it as a factor.
ILLUSTRATION. — 12 is a multiple of 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12, because it contains each of them as a factor.
(e.) Every number is a divisor and a factor of all its multiples, and a multiple of all its factors and divisors.
(f.) A PRIME NUMBER is one which has no factor except itself and unity.
(g.) A COMPOSITE NUMBER is one which has other factors besides itself and unity.
ILLUSTRATIONS.—1, 3, 5, 7, 11, etc. are prime numbers, and 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, etc. are composite.