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ed States, and the Cherokee nation, by the chiefs and warriors, representing the said nation, have agreed to the following articles, namely: ARTICLE I.
The peace and friendship subsisting between the United States and the Cherokee people, are hereby renewed, continued and declared perpetual. ARTICLE II.
The treaties subsisting between the present contracting parties, are acknowledged to be of full and operating force; together with the construction and usage under their respective articles, and so to continue. ARTICLE III.
The limits and boundaries of the Cherokee nation, as stipulated and marked by the existing treaties between the parties, shall be and remain the same, where not altered by the present treaty.
In acknowledgment for the protection of the United States, and for the considerations herein after expressed and contained, the Cherokee nation agree, and do hereby relinquish and cede to the United States, all the lands within the following points and lines, viz. From a point on the Tennessee river, below Tellico block-house, called the Wildcat Rock, in a direct line to the Militia spring, near the Mary-ville road leading from Tellico. From the said spring to the Chill-howie mountain, by a line so to be run, as will leave all the farms on Nine-mile Creek to the northward and eastward of it; and to be continued along Chill-howie mountain, until it strikes Hawkins's line. Thence along the said line to the great Iron mountain; and from the top of which a line to be continued in a south-eastwardly course to where the most southwardly branch of Little river crosses the divisional line to Tulgaloc river: From the place of beginning, the Wildcat Rock, down the north-east margin of the Tennessee river (not including islands) to a point or place one mile above the junction of that river with the Clinch, and from thence by a line to be drawn in a right angle, until it intersects Hawkins's line leading from Clinch. Thence down the said line to the river Clinch; thence up the said river to its junction with Emmery's river; and thence up Emmery's river to the foot of Cumberland mountain. From thence a line to be drawn, north-eastwardly, along the foot of the mountain, until it intersects with Campbell's line. ARTICLE V.
To prevent all future misunderstanding about the line described in the foregoing article, two commissioners shall be appointed to superintend the running and marking the same, where not ascertained by the rivers, immediately after signing this treaty; one to be appointed by the commissioners of the United States, and the other by the Cherokee. nation; and who shall cause three maps or charts thereof to be made out; one whereof shall be transmitted and deposited in the war-office of the United States; another with the executive of the state of Tennessee, and the third with the Cherokee nation, which said line shall form a part of the boundary between the United States and the Cherokee nation. ARTICLE VI.
In consideration of the relinquishment and cession hereby made, the United States upon signing the present treaty, shall cause to be delivered to the Cherokees, goods, wares and merchandise, to the amount
of five thousand dollars, and shall cause to be delivered, annually, other goods, to the amount of one thousand dollars, in addition to the annuity already provided for; and will continue the guarantee of the remainder of their country forever, as made and contained in former treaties. ARTICLE VII.
The Cherokee nation agree, that the Kentucky road, running between the Cumberland mountain and the Cumberland river, where the same shall pass through the Indian land, shall be an open and free road for the use of the citizens of the United States in the like manner as the road from Southwest point to Cumberland river. In consideration of which it is hereby agreed on the part of the United States, that until settlement shall make it improper, the Cherokee hunters shall be at liberty to hunt and take game upon the lands relinquished and ceded by this treaty.
Due notice shall be given to the principal towns of the Cherokees, of the time proposed for delivering the annual stipends; and sufficient supplies of provisions shall be furnished, by and at the expense of the United States, to subsist such reasonable number that may be sent, or shall attend to receive them during a reasonable time.
It is mutually agreed between the parties, that horses stolen and not returned within ninety days, shall be paid for at the rate of sixty dollars each; if stolen by a white man, citizen of the United States, the Indian proprietor shall be paid in cash; and if stolen by an Indian from a citizen, to be deducted as expressed in the fourth article of the treaty of Philadelphia. This article shall have retrospect to the commencement of the first conferences at this place in the present year, and no further. And all animosities, aggressions, thefts and plunderings, prior to that day shall cease, and be no longer remembered or demanded on either side.
The Cherokee nation agree, that the agent who shall be appointed to reside among them from time to time, shall have a sufficient piece of ground allotted for his temporary use.
And lastly, This treaty, and the several articles it contains, shall be considered as additional to, and forming a part of, treaties already subsisting between the United States and the Cherokee nation, and shall be carried into effect on both sides, with all good faith as soon as the same shall be approved and ratified by the President of the United States, and the Senate thereof.*
February 25, 1799, for the purpose of defraying the expenses which may arise in carrying into effect the following treaties, viz. A treaty made with the Greeks, at New-York, April 7, 1750, and a further treaty with the said Crecks, made at Colerain, June 29, 1796: A treaty made with the Six Nations, November 11, 1794: An agreement made with the Chickasaws in PhiTadelphia, July 15, 1794, to pay to the said nation goods to the amount of three thousand dollars annually : Aad the treaty made at Tellico, with the Chevakees, O&tober 2, 1798—and a treaty of Holston, mentioned in the same: So much money as may be necessary is pledged and appropriated for the payment of the annuities stipulated therein, so long as they shall be in force: and a further sum of ten thousand dollars to defray the cost of transportation and other contingent charges. See vol. iv. p. 258.
Articles of a Treaty
Concluded at Hopewell, on the Keowee, near Seneca Old Town, on the third day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-six, between Benjamin Hawkins, Andrew Pickens and Joseph Martin, Commissioners plenipotentiary of the United States of America, of the one part; and Yockonahoma, great Medal Chief of Soonacoha; Yockahoopoie, leading Chief of Bugtoogoloo; Mingohoopoie, leading Chief of Hashcoqua; Tolocoh, great Medal Chief of Congeto; Pooshemastubie, Gorget Captain of Senayazɔ; and thirteen small Medal Chiefs of the first Class, twelve Medal and Gorget Captains, Commissioners picnipotentiary of all the Choctaw Nation, of the other part.
HE Commissioners Plenipotentiary of the United States of Ame
the favor and protection of the United States of America, on the following conditions. ARTICLE I.
The Commissioners Plenipotentiary of all the Choclaw nation, shall restore all the prisoners, citizens of the United States, or subjects of their allies, to their entire liberty, if any there be in the Choctaw nation. They shall also restore all the negroes, and all other property taken during the late war, from the citizens, to such person, and at such time and place as the Commissioners of the United States of America shall appoint, if any there be in the Choctaw nation.
The Commissioners Plenipotentiary of all the Choctaw nation, do hereby acknowledge the tribes and towns of the said nation, and the lands with the boundary allotted to the said Indians to live and hunt on, as mentioned in the third article, to be under the protection of the United States of America, and of no other sovereign whosoever.
The boundary of the lands hereby allotted to the Choctaw nation to live and hunt on, within the limits of the United States of America, is and shall be the following, viz. Beginning at a point on the thirtyfirst degree of north latitude, where the Eastern boundary of the Natches district shall touch the same; thence east along the said thirty-first degree of north latitude, being the southern boundary of the United States of America, until it shall strike the castern boundary of the lands on which the Indians of the said nation did live and hunt on the twenty ninth of November, one thousand seven hundred and eightytwo, while they were under the protection of the King of Great-Britain; thence northerly along the said eastern boundary, until it shall meet the northern boundary of the said lands; thence westerly along the said northern boundary, until it shall meet the western boundary thereof; thence southerly along the same to the beginning: Saving and reserving for the establishment of trading posts, three tracts or parcels of land of six miles square each, at such places as the United States in Congress assembled shall think proper; which posts, and the lands annexed to them, shall be to the use and under the government of the United States of America.
If any citizen of the United States, or other person not being an Indian, shall attempt to settle on any of the lands hereby allotted to the Indians to live and hunt on, such person shall forfeit the protection of the United States of America, and the Indians may punish him or not as they please ARTICLE V.
If any Indian or Indians, or persons, residing among them, or who shall take refuge in their nation, shall commit a robbery or murder or other capital crime on any citizen of the United States of America, or person under their protection, the tribe to which such offender may belong, or the nation, shall be bound to deliver him or them up to be punished according to the ordinances of the United States in Congress assembled: Provided, that the punishment shall not be greater than if the robbery or murder, or other capital crime had been committed by a citizen on a citizen. ARTICLE VI.
If any citizen of the United States of America, or person under their protection, shall commit a robbery or murder, or other capital crime, on any Indian, such offender or offenders shall be punished in the same manner, as if the robbery or murder, or other capital crime, had been committed on a citizen of the United States of America; and the punishment shall be in presence of some of the Choctaws, if any will attend at the time and place: And that they may have an opportunity so to do, due notice, if practicable, of the time of such intended punishment, shall be sent to some one of the tribes.
It isunderstood that the punishment of the innocent, under the idea of retaliation, is unjust, and shall not be practised on either side, except where there is a manifest violation of this treaty; and then it shall be preceded, first by a demand of justice, and if refused, then by a declaration of hostilities. ARTICLE VIII.
For the benefit and comfort of the Indians, and for the prevention of injuries or oppressions on the part of the citizens or Indians, the United States in Congress assembled shall have the sole and exclusive right of regulating the trade with the Indians, and managing all their affairs in such manner as they think proper.
Until the pleasure of Congress be known, respecting the eighth article, all traders, citizens of the United States of America, shall have liberty to go to any of the tribes or towns of the Choctaws, to trade with them, and they shall be protected in their persons and property, and kindly treated. ARTICLE X.
The said Indians shall give notice to the citizens of the United States of America, of any designs which they may know or suspect to be formed in any neighboring tribe, or by any person whosoever, against the peace, trade or interest of the United States of America.
The hatchet shall be forever buried and the peace given by the United States of America, and friendship re-established between the said states on the one part, and all the Choctaw nation on the other part, shall be universal; and the contracting parties shall use their utmost endeavors to maintain the peace given as aforesaid, and friendship re-established.
A Treaty of Friendship, Limits and Accommodation,
Between the United States of America, and the Choctaw Nation of Indians.
HOMAS JEFFERSON, president of the United States of Ame rica, by James Wilkinson, of the state of Maryland, brigadiergeneral in the army of the United States, Benjamin Hawkins, of NorthCarolina, and Andrew Pickens, of South-Carolina, commissioners plenipotentiary of the United States on the one part, and the Mingos, principal men and warriors of the Choctaw nation, representing the said nation in council assembled, on the other part, have entered into the following articles and conditions, viz.
Whereas the United States, in Congress assembled, did by their commissioners plenipotentiary, Benjamin Hawkins, Andrew Pickens, and Joseph Martin, at a treaty held with the chiefs and head men of the Choctaw nation, at Hopewell, on the Keowee, the third day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eightysix, give peace to the said nation, receive it into the favor and protection of the United States of America: It is agreed by the parties to these presents respectively, that the Choctaw nation, or such part of it as may reside within the limits of the United States, shall be and continue under the care and protection of the said States; and that the mutual confidence and friendship which are hereby acknowledged to subsist between the contracling parties, shall be maintained and perpetuated. ARTICLE II.
The Mingos, principal men and warriors of the Choctaw nation of Indians, do hereby give their free consent, that a convenient and durable waggon-way be explored, marked, opened and made under the orders and instructions of the president of the United States, through their lands; to commence at the northern extremity of the settlement of the Missisippi Territory, and to be extended from thence, by such route as may be selected and surveyed under the authority of the president of the United States, until it shall strike the lands claimed by the Chickasaw nation; and the same shall be and continue for ever a highway for the citizens of the United States and the Choctaws; and the said Choctaws shall nominate two discreet men from their nation who may be employed as assistants, guides or pilots during the time of laying out and opening the said highway, or so long as may be deemed expedient, under the direction of the officer charged with this duty, who shall receive a reasonable compensation for their services.
The two contracling parties covenant and agree that the old line of demarcation hereafter established by and between the officers of his Britannic Majesty and the Choctaw nation which run in a parallel direction with the Missisippi river and eastward thereof, shall be retraced and plainly marked, in such way and manner as the president may direct, in the presence of two persons to be appointed by the said nation; and that the said line shall be the boundary between the settle