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habit of worshipping along with them. concealing their own opinions. They Undoubtedly, this was not, especially should never, even for peace' sakė, at the present time, what it ought to decline to avow, and defend, and supbe. He could well understand why port, and propagate, at fit times, and professed Unitarians were so few in in becoming ways, those truths which number ; there was little worldly at- they deemed scriptural and important. traction to induce men to range them. He was as fond of liberality as any selves with them. Those who dared one could be ; but it must be such libeto avow themselves Unitarians, mustrality as involved no sacrifice of prinmake up their minds to endure much ciple, no apathy to truth ; such "libethat was hard to be endured ; they rality as could not, by possibility, be perilled caste, they perilled popularity, assumed as a disguise for indifference, reputation, much that was dear to or as an excuse for sneaking from an every man, if they ventured to lift unpopular cause. Love of peace was their voice in defence of what they all very well ; horror of strife was all believed to be the truth of God and of very well; charity for theerring was all his Christ. Hence it was that pro- very well : but there were none of them fessed Unitarians were so few, while very well, when they interfered for a real Unitarians were so many ; that moment with that faithful and fearless many thought, many believed, few testimony they ought to bear to the dared to worship, few to act with them. truth. Even peace would be too dearly But those who already worshipped bought, if they were to purchase it by a with them, and yet would not lend silent submission to the spread of error. their aid to their exertions, could not It was indeed purchased at too dear a be actuated (at least to any great ex- rate, when, for it, the sentiments of tent) by motives such as these. There their hearts were repressed, and they were other reasons operating with became recreant to their own convicthem, which, in some degree, he re- tions, and made it an excuse for flingspected-with which, in some degree, ing aside responsibilities which duty he sympathized, but which appeared to God, and duty to their Redeemer, to hím altogether insufficient to excuse required they should meet. There apparent indifference to so holy a cause was, indeed, a louder call than ever to as that in which they were engaged. every heart, to awaken to a sense of There was a large proportion of their its responsibility. The position in fellow-worshippers who conscienti- which recent circumstances have ously objected to their society altoge- placed the Unitarians of these kingther, because they loved peace, they doms, demanded from them more than hated excitement, they could not bear ever, a fearless, earnest advocacy of the thought of becoming embroiled in what they believed to be the truth. religious strife. They were attached They must learn to look falsehood in enough to their own pure faith, but the face, and call it by its proper name. would say nothing, and do nothing, They must strive without ceasing, to that could have even the appearance extricate the Word of God from the of condemning the opinions of others. interpretations with which it had been They had a morbid aversion to so overlaid, and Christianity from the much as hearing from their pulpits swathings and appendages which had anything that could remind them that disfigured it for ages. To do this effecin any one point they differed from tually, they must unite in their endeaany one of their fellow-Christians. vours ; they must aid, they must counSuch persons forgot the Saviour's as- tenance, they must co-operate with, surance, that hisGospel truth is a light each other. They must associate ; too precious to be hid under a bushel, they must concentrate their efforts. and not set openly before men. They They might depend upon it that while forgot that there was nothing secret they still kept Christian charity their which should not be made manifest; only creed, there was no real danger of nothing hid which should not be made such union, such co-operation, such known. He (Mr. A.) fully concurred concentration degenerating into that with them, that they might, and they bad sectarianism, which was so rife ought to be indulgent to the religious elsewhere, and the dread of which had opinions nay, even to the religious caused so many to withhold their aid ; prejudices, and the religious errors- they might depend upon it, that if of others; but there was no need, on those who had been put in trust with that account, for compromising or the truth, were but true to the great

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moral duty which that trust involved, extended its protection to us, and premountains of difficulties with which served our congregational rights from they were surrounded, would ere long such an infliction, and has enabled us be removed, and cast into the sea ; that to assemble here this night to forward while they remained thus steadfast, the original objects of this Unitarian they need 'fear nothing for the truth. Christian Society: and it is delightIt was the care of Heaven. No wea- ful to behold so many assembled here, pon could succeed, no efforts eventually to aid us by their encouraging assent prosper against it.

and approbation in the carrying out, Mr. Ball, one of the committee, effestually, our arrangements, and for being called on by the Chairman to giving more general publicity to our second the resolution, observed as fol- Christian principles. lows :- I shall not hesitate to second The Rev. Dr. DRUMMOND, in moving the resolution, and, sir, I am proud to a vote of thanks to the Rev. William declare myself one of those persons James for the valuable service he had alluded to by my reverend friend, as rendered the association by his dishaving, from sincere conviction of the courses of the previous day, begged truth of Unitarian Christianity, with- permission first to refer to a matter drawn themselves from the mental which he considered would be interesttrammels of creeds, and liturgies, ing to the meeting, respecting the which, in my early years, produced in prospects of Unitarianism in India. my mind continued doubts and mys- Those prospects were of a cheering tified difficulties, that I never could description, and it was with no small reconcile with the principles of Chris- pleasure they had learned at their tian truth ; insomuch that, although I former annual meeting, that in Madras am now twenty-four years a member and a neighbouring locality, they had of this congregation, I was for above some zealous Unitarian friends, and twenty years before wholly detached that there were two small respectable from Trinitarian worship; and, ab- congregations of natives, who worsenting myself from the same, I was shipped the one God, the God and often reproached by votaries of that Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. doctrine, and know not of any who Notwithstanding certain discourageavowed Unitarian principles as I did. ments, they were in a healthy and But, sir, at that period Trinitarian thriving state, and most anxious to doctrines were uphield by most strin- have a Unitarian Missionary from gent laws, and denouncements against Great Britain or Ireland to help them. all who dared to question the same, During the course of the last year the and I remained, as alone and singular Secretary of the British and Foreign in my opinions, until I had the good Unitarian Association in London was fortune to hear of and join the congre- (he believed) informed of their wants, gation of Strand-street, with whom, in hope that when he made them as well as, occasionally, with the Eus- known to the Association, some means tace-street congregation, I, from time would be adopted to have their wants to time, for many years past, have had supplied. Meantime they had not the happiness of uniting in worship- been remiss in their endeavours to do ping our heavenly Father, under the something for themselves, and they guidance of our blessed Saviour's ex- had been kindly, and, he might say, ample and Gospel instructions, and providentially, assisted by two or three the pious truths enforced by the pray; officers in the army, who had not found ers and discourses of our esteemed and their military duties incompatible with zealous ministers, who, during all their a love for the religion of peace. Of recent and persecuting difficulties, have their earnestness in the cause, it might held on to their principles, and fought suffice to say, that they had repeatedly the good fight for Unitarian Chris- sent for parcels of their tracts and tianity, in despite of the accumulated pamphlets, and that last year they and almost overwhelming vitupera- sent them to the value of £10. There tions with which we were all, in com- could be no doubt that, if a missionary, mon, assailed, and under the malig- well qualified for the discharge of his nant influence of which we were in important duties, were to go and asdanger of being deprived of our quiet sist them, he might achieve victories and unassuming places of worship. over ignorance, superstition, and idoBut, sir, under the Almighty Provi- latry, more glorious to the British dence, a wise and good government name, and more conducive to the best interests of India, than all their vio- deeply interested in everything that tories over the Sikhs. Would that a affects your social condition, and your few thousands, or even hundreds of moral and religious welfare. And the pounds which were lavished on often are our prayers offered up to the their fleets and armies were placed in common Father of us all, that he their hands to enable them to promote would be pleased, in mercy, to give a missionary enterprise, to ascertain you healthful times, and fruitful sea(though merely, by the way of experi. sons, and bless your country and my ment) what Unitarian missionaries own with a state where there shall be could do, to the overthrow of the food and clothing, and honourable la30,000 gods of the Hindoos, headed by bour for all ; when there shall be cultheir Trinity of Bramah, Vishnoo, and ture for every mind, and Christian Siva. As for the so-called Orthodox love and truth in every heart. Mr. missionaries, their doctrines were mak- James concluded an eloquent and ing but little progress among the na- lengthened speech with the following tives of India. They had Trinities and statements, viz. :-I hold in my hand Incarnations enough of their own a well-authenticated and carefully without fresh importations. Among prepared statement respecting Unithe Indians were many men of strong tarianism in different parts of the minds, acute reasoning powers, and world, from which I see that, at home great erudition, of whom Rammohun and abroad, there is unquestionably a Roy was a striking example ; men progressive improvement in the conwho were already too well instructed dition and prospects of our churches. in religious knowledge to receive as It is estimated that in Holland, SwitGospel the irrational and unscriptural zerland, France, and Germany, Unidoctrines of certain Orthodox teachers, tarian Christianity is the faith of not but who could understand and were less than one-half of those who have ready to embrace the simple truths of renounced the Church of Rome. The Unitarian Christianity.

earnest-minded Ronge has made a The resolution, having been second- declaration of faith essentially Unitaed by Mr. Rankin, was carried by ac- rian. I am aware that he has been clamation.

charged by some Orthodox writers of Mr. JAMES came forward, and was this country with having adopted antigreeted with loud and continued ap- supernatural opinions. But I have as plause. He addressed the meeting as yet seen nothing to justify such an asfollows :-Mr. Chairman, Ladies and sertion. And we may be sure that Gentlemen–The very kind manner in Ronge's simple creed would have but which Dr. Drummond has spoken of few attractions for lovers of that of my services yesterday, and in which Athanasius, or of the Westminster you have received me this evening, has Assembly. In America, in 1825, the so excited my feelings, that I fear I whole number of Unitarian societies shall find it difficult to express my was 120—it is now about 300, besides thanks, either to him or to you, in the nearly 2,000 congregations entertainway which I would desire. I came to ing kindred views, though not in conthis place a stranger : and yet, sir, in nexion with the Unitarian body so the prospect of reaching your shores, called. Within the last twenty years I had little or nothing of the feeling of the Unitarians of Transylvania have loneliness which the idea of being a almost doubled their numbers, and are stranger would seem to imply. I knew now nearly 52,000. In England, Mr. there were a few persons here with Barker, who, whatever we may think whom I had been occasionally in cor- of some of his speculations, is a most respondence on questions affecting earnest and excellent man, and is cerhuman freedom, and human improve- tainly doing a great work,-has esment; and from them I certainly ex- tablished upwards of three hundred pected a cordial welcome. I remem- churches, and is labouring with disbered, too, that, wherever I had been tinguished success among the workingin my own country, I had always classes of his countrymen. Mr. James found the members of our churches then spoke of the movement which kind and hospitable ; and I did not had been recently commenced in the fear that I should find the same dis- west of England, from which he antiposition among you. And, sir, I may cipated great good, and concluded by venture to say, for my brethren in urging those around him to labour for England generally, that we are all the promotion of Unitarianism, not as

a system of sectarian dogmas, bat be- occasional opportunities of bringing cause it comprehended great, vital, their tracts under the notice of inquirpractical principles of Christianity, ing minds, and the leaving of wellwhose diffusion and operation were selected tracts amongst our other closely connected with the cause of books in our rooms, had often been human happiness and improvement attended with remarkable advantages. throughout the world, and calculated to Unitarians shonld make more conbring glory to God in the highest, peace stant and more extensive use of their on earth, and good-will among men, books and tracts for the instrnction

Mr. ANDREws, in moving a reso- of themselves; they should educate lution expressive of the cordial and their children carefully in their own sincere thanks of the Society to the views, doing as little as possible to Rev. George Armstrong, of Bristol, interfere with their Christian liberty, the Rev. Dr. Hutton, of London, and when they should become able freely the Rev. Dr. Ledlie, for the truly ad- to exercise their own judgments; but, mirable discourses preached by them in the mean time, preventing others at the request of the Society, since its from cunningly and covertly misleadlast meeting, observed that the meet- ing their children in their youth, and ing had done justice to itself by the indoctrinating them with Trinitarianmanner in which it had received the ism. He then referred to the power preceding resolution. Mr. Andrews every Unitarian had of removing or dwelt at some length upon the duty shaking some of the sandy foundations of the laity to testify their gratitude and outworks of orthodoxy; the soby co-operating with their clergy, by phisms, great and small, which obtain joining them with heart and soul in currency with the time-serving, and their noble undertaking, by sympathy powerfully influence the weak-minded with them in their struggles, confidence and the timid. For instance, the soin their benevolent intentions, co-ope- phism, “Better believe too much than ration in every laudable object, and too little.” Every one, whɔ reasons by individual' exertions where op- for himself, and does not blindly adopt portunity offered. That we should silly assertions as truisms, knows that banish from amongst us all lukewarm- the comparative demerits of an exness and cold indifference – those cessive and a defective belief must, in blighting influences, that wither the every case, depend on the nature and heart where they find a shelter, and extent of the exaggeration or defideaden every heart that comes within ciency– the former being generally their sphere. Combined exertions the fault of a superstitions mind, the were very important, but nothing latter, when found amongst the vircould be done without devoted indi. tuous and intelligent, being frequently vidual exertion. It was folly, or the result of an "over-philosophical" worse, for any individual to say he spirit. No person, therefore, can has nothing in his power; he who safely say, as an abstract proposition, says so, only proves that he wants whether it is a greater evil to believe the inclination. Every Unitarian too much or too little : and every justcould support a considerable portion judging person will feel that it is not of their valuable periodicals, and a safe subject for practical experiment, amongst others, their Irish periodical, and that it is better to believe neither formerly called the Bible Christian, too much nor too little—to be anxious now the Irish Unitarian Magazine, only to believe what is right. Again, to which every Irish Unitarian could, the sophism, “It is the safe side to if he pleased, and ought to be, a sub- err on"-a lamentable sophism-and scriber, That periodical had, since when applied to the alleged preferable its commencement, about the year safety of expressing a belief in the 1830, done incalculable service to their doctrine of the Trinity, a sophism cause, and had now, from its enlarged based on a low and degrading estisize, excellent matter, and cheapness, mate of the character of our blessed renewed claims upon their support. Saviour, it imputes to him the possiEvery Unitarian could supply himself bility of being favourably affected by with tracts which he approved, and flattery and undue homage, that he, circulate them amongst those who who on earth, was pure and spotless, might seek for, or be willing to peruse and rejected and repudiated every them. This should not be attempted homage to which he was not entitled, intrusively, or improperly; but all had ascribing all to his and our heavenly

Father, would now, in his glorified not only in grievous error, but of being state, pursue a different course, and, found to be wilfully and obstinately at least, not be displeased with his so.

This class of Trinitarians seem followers who exalted him to the to consider all men fallible-but themthrone, instead of placing him in his selves; they fancy, themselves infallitrue glory, at the right hand of God, ble, or infallibly right, and they wilas the Son of God, our Media- fully and deliberately reject the truth tor and Saviour. Surely none with which they might, through our would indulge in such melancholy humble instrumentality, be enlightenfatuities, if they reflected for a mo- ed. Need we tell the Trinitarian, or ment. It is not safe to err on either the Unitarian, that, if our opinions side ; there is no safety, save in ascer- be of God, they must, sooner or later, taining the truth, and holding by it prevail; and that the opposition of when we have found it. Again, that the former, and the indifference of the sophism of coarse hearts and vulgar latter, may mar for a time, or retard, intellects, that eternal perdition awaits but cannot prevent their progress ? — the professors of Unitarianism-a so- Upon the proper performance of our phism involving petitio principii after duty, the happiness of the present and petitio principii. It assumes that in the coming age, and the prosperity of voluntary and unavoidable error is truth, depends ; be it ours to endeaculpable, and that infallibility is pos- vour that their expectations shall not sible; that the just and beneficient be disappointed, that their destiny Being who constructed our minds, shall not be marred. and, in his wisdom, made them not Mr. FALCONER seconded the resoinfallible, will punish with everlasting lution, which was put from the chair, destruction or torments those who, and carried unanimously. after the most earnest and prayerful The Rev. Dr. LEDLIE then addressexertions, have fallen into error, or ed the meeting as follows :- Mr. failed to attain correct views on sub- Chairman, I thank you and this jects more or less incomprehensible; meeting for the compliment you have and it further involves the assumption paid to my exertions, and especially mostcomfortableto, and easily adopted for associating my name and labours by, our unreflecting opponents

, espe- with those of men so highly discially by those who refuse to read onr tinguished by their talents and by writings, and merely know us as we their worth. I cannot, and I ought are grossly maligned and misrepre- not, to feel indifferent to the favoursented—that Unitarianism is founded able opinions of my friends ; and if, in error. This sophism falls harmless by anything that I have done or enat the foot of the Unitarian; he more dured, I have been at all instrumental or less strongly denies all the positions in promoting the great cause of Chrisit adopts, and, if he pleases, he can tian truth and Christian freedom, I make it powerfully recoil on the Tri- am abundantly repaid. Amidst some nitarian who uses it. For, if he discouragements, when I call to mind accede to the Trinitarian, for the sake the snares and dangers that encomof argument, the position that error passed us, and from which we is damnable, will errors on the part of wonderfully escaped, I am filled with those who adopt the doctrine of the gratitude and hope I thank God, Trinity be less visited with punish- and take courage. But enough, and ment than those of Unitarianism? more than enough, of personal feelIf the error lie with the Trinitarian, ings and recollections. This Society, (and unless he have some patent of sir, has, I thin's, wisely been endeainfallibility, of which we know not, youring to awaken public attention he can hardly say it may not,) is it a by occasional controversial discourses, trifling matter to place our Saviour on and by the circulation of books and the throne of God, if he be not God? tracts. The heat and violence with No! if the error lie with the Trini- which religious controversy has often tarian, it is one of no less heinous, no been accompanied, I am aware, have less deadly a character, than that which alarmed many good but timid minds, the Trinitarian imputes to us; and if and rendered them averse to all agihe were a practical believer in the as- tation. The sinful passions of men sertion, that error is damnable, he have frequently turned into an occawould be struck with terror and sion of evil some of our dear st rights aftright at the risk he incurs of being and most valued blessings; but are


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