« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
Our name, while virtue thus we tender,
Will sweetly sound where-e'er 'tis spoke:
What though from fortune's lavish bounty
And be content without excess.
Still shall each returning season
Through youth and age in love excelling,
Sweet smiling peace shall crown our dwelling,
To be translated into GREEK PROSE:
THERE were two very powerful tyrants engaged in a perpetual war against each other: the name of the first was luxury, and of the second avarice. The aim of each of them was no less than universal monarchy over the hearts of mankind. Luxury had many generals under him, who did him great service, as pleasure, mirth, pomp, and fashion. Avarice was likewise very strong in his officers, being faithfully served by hunger, industry, care, and watchfulness: he had likewise a privy-counsellor who was always at his elbow, and whispering something or other in his ear: the name of this privy-counsellor was poverty. As avarice conducted himself by the counsels of poverty, his antagonist was entirely guided by the dictates and advice of plenty, who was his first counsellor and minister of state, that concerted all his measures for him, and never departed out of his sight. While these two great rivals were thus contending for empire, their conquests were very various. Luxury got possession of one heart, and avarice of another. The father of a family would often range himself under the banners of avarice, and the son under those of luxury. The wife and husband would often declare themselves on the two different parties; nay, the same person would very often side with one in his youth, and revolt to the other in his old age. Indeed, the wise men of the world stood neuter: but, alas! their numbers were not considerable. At length, when these two potentates had wearied themselves with waging war upon one another, they agreed upon an interview, at which neither of their counsellors was to be present. It is said that luxury began the parley, and after
having represented the endless state of war in which they were engaged, told his enemy, with a frankness of heart which is natural to him, that he believed they two should be very good friends, were it not for the instigations of poverty, that pernicious counsellor, who made an ill use of his ear, and filled him with groundless apprehensions and prejudices. To this avarice replied, that he looked upon plenty (the first minister of his antagonist) to be a much more destructive counsellor than poverty, for that he was perpetually suggesting pleasures, banishing all the necessary cautions against want, and consequently undermining those principles on which the government of avarice was founded. At last, in order to an accommodation, they agreed upon this preliminary; that each of them should immediately dismiss his privy-counsellor. When things were thus far adjusted towards a peace, all other differences were soon accommodated, insomuch, that for the future they resolved to live as good friends and confederates, and to share between them whatever conquests were made on either side. For this reason, we now find luxury and avarice taking possession of the same heart, and dividing the same person between them. To which I shall only add, that since the discarding of the counsellors above mentioned, avarice supplies luxury in the room of plenty, as luxury prompts avarice in the place of poverty.
SUBJECT for LATIN HEXAMETERS:
KARS, oppugnatoribus fortiter depulsis, tandem, omni auxilii spe omissâ, se hostibus dedit.
1. GIVE an idea of the way in which the moral and political views in Plato's Republic are related to each other.
2. Describe what it is in which the philosophical nature is considered by Socrates to consist, and give the reasons assigned by him
(1) for the alleged unfitness of philosophers for government, and their want of success in it:
(2) for the especial liability of the dispositions best fitted for philosophy to be perverted from it.
3. Give an account of the argument in the latter part of the sixth book of the Republic as to the idea of good in reference to knowledge, and explain accurately,
(1) the difference, in Socrates' view, between knowledge and opinion:
(2) the geometrical manner in which he illustrates this.
4. Describe as well as you can the Platonic idea of Dialectic.
5. Describe accurately, without entering into detail, the course of the argument in the Gorgias and the result which in your opinion it comes to. Mention also what you know about the speakers in it.
6. How does Socrates answer the question put to him by Polus, 'had you not rather be the injurer than the injured?' and the subsequent one, 'would you accept of despotic power offered to you?'
7. What, according to Socrates in the Gorgias, is virtue, and what the proper aim of life for each man?
8. How is the account thus given of these to be connected with
(1) The general nature of things,
(2) The theory of punishment,
(3) The idea of its being worse to injure than to be injured?
9. Eth. Nic. 2. 5. init. Three kinds of things take place or may be conceived as existing in the soul, and virtue belongs to one of the kinds. What are they, and which does virtue belong to ?
10. Compare the above arrangement of the human mental organization with such others as you may know of, shewing how they correspond and fit.
11. What is the relation of virtues to nature? Are they natural, unnatural, or neither?
And what to habit? Explain the word habit accurately, shewing the relation which moral habits bear to dispositions, and to character. (Refer if you like it to the Greek terms answering to these and other similar moral ideas).
12. Explain the idea of virtue being a mean between two vices, and give as many instances as you can. Do you know any cases where virtues and vices, called anonymous by Aristotle, have names in English?
13. Translate into English the words facultas and aptitudo in jural ethics. Define accurately the meaning in English of the substantive right. Is it proper to say, Right consisteth in liberty to do or to forbear,' 'In a state of nature, every man has a right to every thing?'
14. What is the meaning of the distribution of the proof of natural jus into a priori and a posteriori, and how does that which the latter proves differ from jus voluntarium?
15. Distinguish between public and private war, and explain the circumstances under which the latter is to be considered allowable.
16. Mention into what parts or functions civil or governmental power is most properly divided, comparing the descriptions of it by Thucydides and Aristotle with more modern ones.
17. Explain the theory of absolute power as distinguished from vaλAnλiouós, or mutual subjection. What difference is made in the idea of resistance, according to the one or the other of them?
18. By what names have the faculties been called by which intuitive and demonstrative Truth are apprehended respectively, and what are the most suitable ones?
19. What proof does Coleridge give of the existence of reason and understanding as he considers them, and is it sufficient? What relation has the distinction to the moral sentiment?
20. Explain, illustrate and give your opinion of the theory, that 'eternal and necessary relations of things make it fit and reasonable for creatures to act in a particular way, namely, morally, or lay an obligation on them to do so.'
21. To what extent is it possible to establish a similarity between absurdity as regards mathematics, and moral wrong? Compare Dr S. Clarke's theory on this subject with that of his predecessors in the same school, such as Cudworth.
1. SAVIGNY maintains that "Law is first developed by Custom and popular faith, and next by Jurisprudence, but everywhere by internal silently operating powers, not by the arbitrary will of a Lawgiver." Apply this to the Law of England, and shew how far that Law is influenced by the prevalence of such an idea.
2. "At jus privatum, sub tutelâ juris publici, latet." In what way does Bacon maintain the truth of this position, and what does he declare to be the "finis et scopus legum?"
3. Mention some of the definitions that have been given of the term "Natural Law," by writers later than the Roman lawyers.
4. Grotius speaks of two ways of investigating the Law of Nature, state them at length, and if you disagree with such a view, give your reasons.
5. In what way have some writers endeavoured to shew an identity between the Law of Nature and Nations? If you think there is any fallacy in their arguments point it out.
Et leges sanctas docuit, et chara jugavit
Corpora conjugiis; et magnas condidit urbes.
Frag. C. Licin. Calvi.
How does Sir James Mackintosh's summary of the progressive order of society accord with these lines?
7. What is Paley's definition of a contract? State at full length the rule which he lays down as governing the construction of contracts.
8. Does Paley agree with the English law in its maxim "caveat emptor" in the contract of "Sale?"
9. Mention and explain with example the three principal forms of government enumerated by Paley. How far do you consider either of these best adapted to promote the greatest happiness of the people?
10. Mention some of the causes which, according to Hallam, tended to form the Constitution of England.