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of this valuable addition to the apparatus of the gymnasium must be practised cautiously, and the movement gradually are shown in Fig. 15. Two bars, made of deal, ash, or any increased according to the strength and skill of the beginner. light wood, rounded so as to be readily grasped by the hand, The expert are able to swing so high, simply grasping the bars and from six to eight feet in length, are fixed on strong upright in the ordinary manner, that the feet in the forward movement supports, either firmly embedded in the ground, or standing rise above the level of the head, and in the backward progression on a solid frame like that represented in the illustration. the body is brought almost into the perpendicular position, the The distance between the bars is generally about a foot head being nearly level with the hands. But we do not advise and a half, or such that the shoulders of the individual any one who practises for health's sake alone to attempt this, practising may readily pass between them. The bars should although he may see others perform it.
also be about Here we must note, once for all, that in these and other the height exercises the young gymnast must keep steadily before him the of the shoul- object with which he set out, namely, to develop and strengthen ders from the the physical powers, thereby securing health and activity; and not ground. to equal or exceed some other and perhaps more expert gymnast
The gym. or gymnasts in the performance of striking feats. If this is not nast starts borne in mind, and the practice regulated accordingly, it is from one of not only possible, but certain, that more harm than good will the cross- result to the learner pieces which from the usual rou. are
at tine of either a pubeither end of lic or a private gym.
the figure. nasium. Fig. 15.
Placing the 7. The following
hands firmly is the method of on the bars, he springs up into the position illustrated in Fig. accomplishing the 16. This is known as the rest. The heels should be close turn over. You together, the toes turned out, the head erect, and the chest start from a standthrown forward. The hands may be with the knuckles out- ing position, and, ward, as in the cut, or with this grasp reversed ; or, again, grasping the bars with the palms and fingers extended flat on the tops of the firmly, bring the bars ; according to convenience or inclination in executing the legs forward and up
Fig. 17. different movements.
ward with a spring, From this position you may (1) travel along the bars from until the body hangs perfectly level below the bars. This wo end to end by the movement of the hands. Keep the legs still, will call the first stage of the turn; and each stage should be and let the progressive movements of the arms be equal on well practised before proceeding to the next. Now, from this either side. Do this first with the ordinary, and then with the horizontal position, the weight resting upon the hands, carry reversed grasp.
the legs upward until the body resumes the perpendicular, but 2. From the rest, give a rapid turn, releasing one hand with the head downmost; thus half the circle is described. and bringing it to the same bar that is held by the other. Then bring the legs downward, the reverse way from the This is called facing, and after performing the movement previous movement, until the body again hangs horizontally,
you may travel as before, but the face directed towards the ground. This is the third but grasping the one bar stage of the turn, which will be completed by a light spring only.
downwards, bending the knees as the feet touch the earth. 3. Other rests are the rest The quick and regular performance of each of these movements on the fore-arms, in which in succession constitutes the perfect turn backwards, which will they are placed flat along the not be difficult after the preliminary exercises have been top of the bar; and the drop thoroughly mastered. The turn over forwards is accomplished rest, in which the weight is by reversing these movements, the legs being thrown behind thrown upon the hands, while you in starting. the body sinks partially down, 8. To perform the roll you sit astride the bars, bend the the elbows being raised above body forwards until the head is between them, the arms being the shoulders.
placed outside, and then throw the legs upward, and turn 4. Raising the legs should quickly over, legs outside, which brings you back to the be practised in the following straddling position. This may be done again and again, until manner. With a firm grasp you have traversed the length of the bars, when you may in the rest, begin by swing- reverse the roll and go ing them slowly backwards back to the other end; and forwards, to acquire free- but for the backward dom of action. Then raise roll let the forearms first one and next the other rest upon the bars,
alternately. Lastly, raise which should be Fig. 16.
them gradually in front grasped firmly behind
of you, keeping them close you. together and stiffly extended, and endeavour to bring them so 9. The sling or ham. high that they form a straight line parallel to the line of the mock (Fig. 18) must bars, but two or three inches higher, while the body is, as be performed by the it were, in a sitting position. This will try your muscles, and backward turn as preyou must not expect to do it at the first or the second attempt, viously described, but
Fig. 18. but you will derive benefit in practising it until you are able instead of bringing the to accomplish it with ease. When you have succeeded, open legs between the bars in the descent, let the feet rest on them, the legs, moving them from side to side, and still keeping them and the body hang from the bars by the hands and feet in the on a perfect level.
manner shown in the illustration. 5. Next, from the rest, raise the legs the reverse way-i.e., 10. To vault out of the bars, raise the legs slightly above backwards. With a gradual movement this will not be so easy them, and then turn and jump downwards cleanly to the as the last exercise; but with a swinging motion the body may ground, either over the right bar or the left, throwing the
yht to the position shown in Fig. 17. Again open the weight upon the arm, and not touching the bar with the body retch out as in swimming.
as you descend. The light vault downward from the rest at exercise brings us to the actual swing, which the end of the bars will need no explanation.
LESSONS IN BOTANY.–VIII.
from the Greek metalov (pronounced pet'-a-lon) a leaf, and the
whole five collectively are termed the corolia, from the Latin SECTION XV.-PARTS OF AN INDIVIDUAL FLOWER.
corolla, a diminutive of corona, a crown or garland. These HAVING already described the chief arrangement which flowers portions of this, or any other flower, are not its reproductive assume, we may now proceed to examine the parts of which portions, but are merely to be regarded as the materials of little Aowers themselves are made up. For the purpose of our first painted houses in which the gentlemen and ladies dwell. The examination it, will be well to select a flower in which the term perianth, from the Greek tepu (peri), around, and avdos various parts are all fully developed; for this co-existence of all (an’-thos), a flower, is frequently given to the calyx and the the parts necessary to constitute a perfect flower is not invari- corolla of a flower taken collectively, on account of the fructi. able; in certain species one or more of these parts are wanting, fying portions of a flower being surrounded by these parts. and conversely in certain species the parts are redundant. Proceeding still with our examination, we next arrive at many Thas botanical pro
whorls or circular rows ductions are very apt
of stamens (from the to assume monstrous
Latin stamen, a thread appearances,
or fibre), or male parts times by the suppres.
of the flower. Our sion of organs, at other
diagram (Fig. 77) retimes by their change,
presents one of them or their presence in
cut off. Lastly, we increased numbers. In
arrive at several whorls point of fact, the
of carpels, from the greater number of
Greek καρπος (kar'-pos) 75 garden flowers are,
fruit, or pistils, from botanically speaking,
the Latin pistillum, a monsters, care and cul. 78
pounder, and so called tivation having suc
from their likeness to ceeded in effecting re
the pestle used by markable changes.They
druggists (Fig. 78), are beautifulfor a mere
each consisting of lover of flowers to look
the ovary, or seed-vesat, and often the ob
82 sel (from the Latin jects of much solicitude,
ovum, an egg), below; but quite unfit for the
and terminating above purpose of being the
in what is called the sobjects of a young
stigma, from the Latin botanist's first inves
stigma, a mark tigations. Thus, how
brand, the intermedi. striking is the differ
ate portion being called ence between the wild 76
the style, from the and cultivated roses.
80 Latin stylus, an iron The flower-leaves of the
pen used for writing former are thin and
on tablets by the Romeagre, the flower. leaves of the latter
Let the reader, then, thick and tightly
not fail to remember packed. Yet the ad
that the stamens are ditional flower-leaves,
the male parts of called petals, of the
plants, and the carpels garden rose are only
or pistils are the female modifications of the
parts. The carpels or stamens, or little thread.
pistils we have already like growths, of the
stated to be each comwild flower. In saying,
posed of ovary below, therefore, that we will
style in the middle, commence our study
and stigma above. of the parts of
Each stamen is also flower by examining
divided into a filament a perfect specimen, 75, CALYX OF RANUNCULUS. 76. COROLLA OF RANUNCULUS. 77. STAMEN OF BANUNCULUs, or thread-like portion, we mean the perfec- 78. CARPELS OF RANUNCULUS. 79. QUINQUEPARTITE CALYX OF THE PIMPERNEL. 80. and anther or head. tion of nature, not the QUINQUEFID CALYX OF THE GENTIAN. 81. IRREGULAR CALYX OF THE DEAD NETTLE. This anther or head is perfection of the gar
82. CALYY OF THE MADDER, 83. ADHERENT CALYX OF THE SUNFLOWER. 84. CALYX OF covered with a dust dener.
85. CALYX OF THE CENTRANTHUS, 86. CALYCULE OF THE STRAWBERRY. called pollen, from the The reader cannot 87. ACORN AND CUP. 88. SPINY INVOLUCRUM OF THE CHESTNUT.
Latin pollen, fine flour, do better than select
which, by falling upon 2 ranuncalus or buttercup as the subject of his first floral | the stigma, causes the ovary to expand, the fruit to ripen, and dissection.
the seed to grow. This pollen the reader, we doubt not, has On examining this flower it will be seen to consist of soveral seen a thousand times over. It is very easily recognisable in circular rows of organs, or whorls, as they are termed. Com- most large flowers, especially tulips, into which if we thrust mencing externally, we first meet with the whorl (Fig. 75), made our fingers or our noses, one or the other, as the case may up of five parts coloured greenish-yellow. These five parts be, comes back covered with a yellow powder. This yellow collectively form what is termed the calyx, from the Greek powder is pollen, without which the tulip plant would be totally Katu (pronounced ka'-lux), a husk, or shell, and each individual incapable of fructifying. of the five parts is termed a sepal, said by Professor Henslow to be derived from a Latin word sepalum, a leaf, obtained by sub- SECTION XVI.-DIFFERENT FORMS WHICH THE CALYX stituting o (s) for 7 (p) in the Greek word metalov, which also
AND THE COROLLA MAY ASSUME. means a leaf,
First of all, as to the calyx. In our example—the buttercup Proceeding with our dissection, we next arrive at the bright —we have seen it consist of five separate portions, and to yellow flower-leaves (Fig 76), each of which is termed a petal, be coloured yellowish-green; but the calyx is not always thus, VOL. I
being subject to modification both as to shape and to colour.
I. QUALITY OF VOICE. In the pimpernel (Fig. 79) the calyx is divided into five separate
The chief properties of a good voice are portions, as we find it in the buttercup. Hence in these cases it is said to be quinquepartite, from the Latin quinque, five. In
3. Versatility, the gentian tribe it is no longer divided into five distinct sepals, 2. Smoothness.
4. Right Pitch. but the calyx displays five clefts or fissures. Hence in this
1.-Roundness. example it is said, in botanical language, to be a fissured or
This property of voice is exemplified in that ringing fulness fissile calyx, and the number of fissures happening to be five, of tone, which belongs to the utterance of animated and earthe term quinquefid, or quinquefissile (fr the Latin quinque, nest feeling, when unobstructed by false habit. It is natural five, and fissus, a part of the verb findo, to cleave or split), is and habitual in childhood; it is exhibited all good singing, applied to the calyx (Fig 80). In the lychnis tribe there is a and in the properly cultivated style of public reading and calyx in which the rudiments only of these fissures are apparent, speaking. giving rise to the appearance of five teeth; hence such a calyx
To obtain roundness and fulness of voice, it is exceedingly is said to be quinquedentate (Latin dens, a tooth). The calyx important that the student observe the following suggestions. is termed regular when the sepals of which it is composed, Be attentive to the position of the body. No person can prowhether equal or unequal, form a symmetrical whorl, as in the duce a full, well-formed sound of the voice, in a lounging or pimpernel (Fig 79); but irregular when the sepals do not form stooping posture. The attitude of the body required for the à symmetrical whorl, as in the dead-nettle (Fig. 81). The proper use of the voice is that of being perfectly upright, withcalyx is said to be free when it is not attached to the pistil, out rigidness. The head must never be permitted to droop; adherent (from the Latin ad, to, and hæreo, to stick to) when it it should be held perfectly erect. The back must be kept is partly or wholly consolidated with the pistil. Although in straight, and the shoulders pressed backward and downward. our example, the buttercup, and in most other examples, the The chest must be well expanded, raised, and projected; so as calyx is easily recognisable, yet in certain other flowers it grows to make it as roomy as possible, in order to obtain full breath so tightly to the ovary, that its discovery is rather more diffi- and full voice. Breathe freely and deeply ; keep up an easy cult. in the madder (Fig. 82), the calyx seems to have fulness of breath, without overdoing the capacity of your altogether disappeared, so tightly has it become attached; in lungs. Make your utterance vigorous and full, by giving free the sunflower (Fig. 83) the calyx adheres to the ovary, which play to the muscles situated below the bony part of the trunk ; it quite surrounds, but eventually becoming free, separates in these should move energetically, in order to drive the breath thread-like prolongations. In each of the little florets of the upward with due force, and thus give body to the sounds of dandelion (Fig. 84) the calyx is at first attached, but separated the voice. Keep the throat freely open, by free opening of eventually in the form of an aigrette or plume. In the cen.
the mouth, so as to give capaciousness and rotundity to every tranthus (Fig. 85) the calyx, first adherent, separates in varfous sound. A round voice can never proceed from a half-shut feathery branches.
mouth. The real calyx is made up of an association of sepals; but a
The large and full effect of vocal sound, produced by the due sort of imitation calyx, called the involucrum, a term which has observance of the preceding directions, forms what is called been already explained, is made up of bracts, those little modified by great authorities in elocution, the “orotund” (round, or, leaves which we have already spoken of as being often found on the literally, round-mouthed) voice, which is considered the ample peduncles or flower-stalks. The extra calyx or calycule on the style of oratory, or public reading, in contrast with the limited strawberry flower (Fig. 86) is made up of these. The acorn. utterance of private conversation. The attitude of body, and cup (Fig. 87) and the spiny involucrum of the chestnut (Fig. 88) the position and action of the organs, demanded by “orotund" are also different modifications of the same thing.
utterance, is likewise highly favourable to health and to easy use of the voice; while stooping and lounging postures, &
sunken chest, and drooping head, tend both to suppress the READING AND ELOCUTION.–VIII.
voice and injure the organs, besides impairing the health. ANALYSIS OF THE VOICE.
Practice in the style of vehement declamation, is the best If we observe attentively the voice of a good reader or speaker, means of securing a round and full tone. The following exerwe shall find his style of utterance marked by the following cise should be repeatedly practised, with the attention closely traits. His voice pleases the ear by its very sound. It is directed to the management of the organs, in the manner which wholly free from affected suavity ; yet, while perfectly natural, has just been described, as producing the “orotund,” or resoit is round, smooth, and agreeable. It is equally free from the nant quality of voice. faults of feebleness and of undue loudness. It is perfectly
Exercise on the “Orotund.” distinct in the execution of every sound, in every word. It Who is the man that, in addition to the disgraces and mischiefs of is free from errors of negligent usage and corrupted style in the war, has dared to authorise, and associate with our arms, the pronunciation. It avoids a measured, rhythmical chant, on the tomahawk and scalping-knife of the savage P-to call into civilised one hand, and a broken, irregular movement, on the other. It alliance the wild and inhuman inhabitant of the woods !--to delegate renders expression clear, by an attentive observance of appro- to the merciless Indian the defence of disputed rights, and to wager priate pauses, and gives weight and effect to sentiment, by the horrors of this barbarous war against our brethren ?-My lords, occasional impressive cessations of voice. It sheds light on
we are called upon as inembers of this house, as men, as Christians, to the meaning of sentences, by the emphatic force which it gives fordships, and upon every order of men in the state, to stamp apon
protest against such horrible barbarity I-I solemnly call upon your to significant and expressive words. It avoids the “ " school" tone of uniform inflections, and varies the voice upward or
this infamous procedure the indelible stigma of the public abbor
rence ! downward, as the successive clauses of a sentence demand. It 2.-Smoothness of Voice, or " Purity” of Tone. marks the character of every emotion, by its peculiar traits of tone; and hence its effect upon the ear, in the utterance of
Smoothness of voice, in reading and speaking, is the same connected sentences and paragraphs, is like that of a varied quality which, in relation to vocal music, is termed“ purity"
of tone. melody, in music, played or sung with ever-varying feeling or expression.
This property of voice consists in maintaining an undisturbed The analysis of the voice, for the purposes of instruction and liquid stream of sound, resembling, to the ear, the effect propractice in reading and declamation, may be extended, in detail, duced on the eye by the flow of a clear and perfectly transto the following points, which form the essential properties of parent stream of water. It depends, like every other excellence good, style in reading and speaking :
of voice, on a free, upright, and unembarrassed attitude of the
body,—the head erect, the chest expanded. It implies natural 1. Good " Quality" of Voice. 6. Appropriate Pauses. and tranquil respiration (breathing); full and deep "inspiration” 2. Dne * Quantity," or Loud. 7. Right Emphasis.
(inhaling, or drawing in the breath); and gentle “ expiration" ness.
8. Correct "Inflections.” (giving forth the breath); a true, and firm, but moderate Distinct Articulation. 9. Just “Stress."
exercise of the “larynx” (or upper part of the throat); and s Yoct Pronunciation 10. “Expressive Tones.” careful avoiding of every motion that produces a jarring, harsh,
11. Appropriate “Modulation.” | or grating sound.
" Pure” tone is free from (1) the heavy and hollow note of and girls, men and women. Faithful advisers may be of much the chest; (2) the "guttural,” choked, stifled, or hard sonnd of service to young students in this particular. the swollen and compressed throat; (3) the hoarse, husky,
3.-Versatility or Pliancy of Voice "harsh,"
." " reedy,” and grating style, which comes from too signifies that power of easy and instant adaptation, by which forcible "expiration,” and too wide opening of the throat; it takes on the appropriate utterance of every emotion which (1) the nasal twang, which is caused by forcing the breath occurs in the reading or speaking of a piece characterised by against the nasal passage, and, at the same time, partially varied feeling or intense passion. closing it; (5) the wiry, or false ring of the voice, which unites
To acquire this invaluable property of voice, the most useful the guttural and the nasal tones; (6) the affected mincing course of practice is the repeated reading or reciting of passages voice of the mouth, which is caused by not allowing the due marked by striking contrasts of tone, as loud or soft, high or proportion of breath to escape through the nose. The natural, low, fast or slow. smooth, and pure tone of the voice, as exhibited in the vivid
The following exercises should be repeated till the student utterance natural to healthy childhood, to good vocal music, or can give them in succession, with perfect adaptation of voico to appropriate public speaking, avoids every effect arising from in each case, and with instantaneous precision of effect. an undue preponderance, or excess, in the action of the muscles of the chest, of the throat, or of any other organ, and, at the
Exercises for Versatility or Pliancy of Voice, same time, secures all the good qualities resulting from the just
Very Loud. and well-proportioned exercise of each. A true and smooth
And dar'st thou, then,
To beard the lion in his den,utterance derives resonance from the chest, firmness from the
The Douglas in his hall ? throat, and clearness from the head and mouth.
And hop'st thou hence unscathed to go ? Without these qualities, it is impossible to give right effect
No! by St. Bride of Bothwell, no !to the beauty and grandeur of noble sentiments, whether ex
Up, drawbridge, groom! What! warder, ho! pressed in prose or in verse.
Let the portcullis fall! Childhood and youth are the favourable seasons for acquiring
Very Soft. and fixing, in permanent possession, the good qualities of
I've seen the moon climb the mountain's brow, agreeable and effective utterance. The self-taught cannot exert
I've watched the mists o'er the river stealing, too much vigilance, nor take too much pains, to avoid the
But ne'er did I feel in my breast till now, encroachments of faulty habit in this important requisite to a
So deep, so calm, and so holy a feeling :good elocution.
'Tis soft as the thrill which memory throws The subjoined exercise should be frequently and attentively
Athwart the soul in the hour of repose. practised, with a view to avoid every sound which mars the
Very Low, purity of the tone, or hinders a perfect smoothness of voice.
I had a dream, which was not all a dream,
The bright sun was extinguished; and the stars
Did wander darkling in the eternal space,
Rayless, and pathless; and the icy earth
Swung blind and blackening in the moonless air.
I awoke :-where was I?-Do I see
A human face look down on me?
And doth a roof above me close ?
Do these limbs on a couch repose ?
Is this a chamber where I lie ?
And is it mortal, yon bright eye,
That watches me with gentle glance ?
Of old hast Thou laid the foundation of the earth; and the
heavens are the work of Thy hands. They shall perish, but Thou Their sacred song, and waken raptures high.
shalt endure; yea, all of them shall wax old, like a garment; as a The varions passions and emotions of the soul are, to a great vesture shalt Thou change them, and they shall be changed: but Thou extent, indicated by the "quality" of the voice. Thus, the
art the same; and Thy years shall have no end.. malignant and all excessive emotions, as, anger, hatred, revenge,
I am the Rider of the wind, jear, and horror, are remarkable for "guttural quality,” and
The Stirrer of the storm! strong " aspiration,” or “ expiration,” accompanying the vocal
The hurricane I left behind sound, and forming "impure" tone; substituting a “harsh,"
Is yet with lightning warm;husky, aspirated utterance, for the “orotund," or the "pure
To speed to thee, o'er shore and sea tone; while pathos, serenity, love, joy, courage, take a soft and
I swept upon the blast. smooth “oral," or head tone, perfectly pure, or swelling into
4.- True Pitch of Voice. " orotand.” Awe, solemnity, reverence, and melancholy, take a
The proper pitch of the voice, when no peculiar emotion deep " pectoral” murmur; the voice resounding, as it were, in demands high or low notes, is—for the purposes of ordinary the cavity of the chest, but still keeping perfectly “pure” in reading or speaking--a little below the habitual note of contone, or expanding into full “orotund.”
versation, for the person who reads or speaks. Public discourse, The young student cannot be too deeply impressed with the being usually on graver subjects and occasions than mere private importance of cultivating early a pure and smooth utterance. communication, naturally and properly adopts this level. The excessively deep “ pectoral" tone sounds hollow and sepul
But, through mistake or inadvertency, we sometimes hear chiral; the “guttural” tone is coarse, and harsh, and grating to persons read and speak on too low a key for the easy and the ear ; the“ nasal” tone is ludicrous ; and the combination expressive use of the voice, and sometimes, on the other hand, of " guttural” and “nasal” tone is repulsive and extremely on a key too high for convenient or agreeable utterance. Lisagreeable. Some speakers, through excessive negligence,
The following sentences should be repeated till the note on allow themselves to combine the “ pectoral," guttural,” and which they are pitched is distinctly recognised, and perfectly “ nasal" tones in one sound, for which the word grunt is the remembered, so as to become a key to all similar passages. only approximate designation that can be found. Affectation
Exercise on Middle Pitch. or false taste, on the other hand, induces some speakers to
In every period of life, the acquisition of knowledge is one of the aegune an extra fine, or double-distilled, " oral tone, which most pleasing employments of the human mind. But in youth, there minces every word in the mouth, as if the breast had no part to are circumstances which make it productive of higher enjoyment. It perform in human utterance.
is then that everything has the charm of novelty; that curiosity and The tones of serious, serene, cheerful, and kindly feeling, are fancy are awake, and that the heart swells with the anticipations of nature's genuine standard of agreeable voice, as is evinced in future eminence and utility. the utterance of healthy and happy childhood. But prevalent Contrast this pitch with that of the pieces before quoted, as neglect permits these to be lost in the habitual tones of boys examples of “high" and "low.”
LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.—XVI.
turned in an easy and flowing stroke. To show the necessity of
this, the learner has only to turn the loop before reaching the In our last lesson, in Copy-slip No. 52, we gave an example of line h h, when he will find that this imparts a stunted appearthe elementary looped stroke which enters into the composition ance to the stroke, or to any letter into whose composition it of the letters j, y, and g, and, with a little modification, into enters, which is far from satisfactory. the formation of the letter z. To make this new elementary To form the letter j, it is only necessary to place a dot above stroke, a thick down-stroke must be commenced at the line a a, the elementary looped stroke that has just been described, on as in Copy-slip No. 57, for example, and carried downwards in a the line d d, which is, as it has been stated in a previous lesson slanting direction towards the left. As the stroke approaches (page 61), three-sixteenths of an inch above the line a a. In the line b b, the pressure on the pen must be lessened and Copy-slip No. 54 the elementary strokes entering into the comgradually reduced until the thick stroke narrows into a hair- ! position of the letters y and g are shown, the first of these
line, which is turned at the line h h, and brought upwards over ! letters consisting of the top-and-bottom-turn and the elementary the line b b, in a direction slanting upwards towards the right, looped stroke, while the second is formed by a combination of crossing the down-stroke in a graceful curve a little below the this stroke and the letter o. In Copy-slips No. 55 and 56, the last-named line.
letters y and g are given, showing how the elementary strokes The distance between the lines b b and h h should be l of which they are composed are joined together, while in Copyexactly nine-sixteenths of an inch. The learner, on referring slip No. 57 an example is given of the method in which the to Copy-slips No. 30 (page 133) and No. 39 (page 173) will seo letter j is joined to any letter that follows it, and the letter y that letters carried below the line b b terminate on a line at the to a letter that precedes it. distance of seven-sixteenths of an inch below it, when the stroke The learner has now been taught how to make nineteen out of below b b is of uniform thickness throughout, as in the letter p, the twenty-six letters of the writing alphabet, and these we shall or has a bottom-turn to the right, as in the letter q. In the bring under his notice in a single lesson, after giving a few more formation, however, of looped letters, an eighth of an inch more examples for practice in writing letters looped below the linebb, is required to give space enough to admit of the loop being i and combining them with others.