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The country lying at the foot of the Alps was in the earliest periods of
history denominated Helvetia, or the land of the Helvetians, from its an-
cient inhabitants, a tribe of German origin. It received its modern name
of Switzerland from one of its cantons, which was among the earliest
to enrol itself in the league which was entered into for the support of
national freedom in the 14th century. Switzerland extends from 45° 50'
to 47° 50' N.L., and from 5° 50' to 10° 30' E. L. Its greatest length
from E. to W. has been estimated at 200 British miles; and its greatest
breadth from N. to S. at about 130 miles. Its figure, however, is pretty
nearly that of a right-angled triangle : having its right angle at Schaff-
bausen, and the two others at the Mont-du-Chat, and Munsterthal. Its
superficies is estimated by Schoch at 875.61, or 18,825 British miles,
but by Stein at only 696.33 German, or about 15,000 British square
miles. It is bounded on the N. by Baden and the lake of Constance ; on
the E. by the Tyrol; on the S. by Lombardy and Sardinia. and on the
W. by France.
: The Swiss confederacy consists of 22 independent cantons : viz.
Ja British Population according Population according
miles. to Schoch, in 1816. 1o Crome, in 1816.
18,825 1,728,127 1,757,831
Hassel's Staatshandbuch, (II. 96), published in 1816, gives 1,714
as the population of this country; and another work published as
same period, estimates it at 1,656,215: Balbi fixed it in 1926, at 1,980,000. From Jacob's late Report on the Corn Question, we learn that, by a census taken in 1821, the population of Switzerland was found to be 1,783,231 ; and in 1827 it was found to be 2,037,030, showing an increase of 253,799 in six years, being above 42,000 yearly. From Schoch's statistics, it appears that the canton of Geneva has the most dense population, being 9,776 souls to the German square mile; while the canton of the Grisons has only 522. Such differences in the relative population of different districts can easily be accounted for in a country like Switzerland, whose varied surface presents tracts of luxuriant fertility in the immediate neighbourhood of the most dreary and sterile districts.
Early History.] When Switzerland was invaded by the Roman armies
under Julius Cæsar, and subsequently under Tiberius—then commanding the
legions of Augustus—that country was inhabited by the Tigurini, the
Rhætians, and other German tribes. Cæsar, in a narrative which still
continues to be admired for its historical fidelity and elegance, has trans-
mitted to posterity a circumstantial account of the subjugation of these
tribes to the suthority of Rome. Helvetia continued a Roman province
until the empire was dissolved by the irruption of the Northern hordes.
During this period the Roman language, manners, laws, coins, dress, and
anchitecture, were introduced into Helvetia. Christianity is supposed to have
been first preached in this country in the year 300. In 430 the Burgundians
took possession of the southern and western districts between the Ursa or
Reuss, the Rhone, and the ridge of the Jura ; while the Alemanni con-
quered the northern and eastern parts between the Rhine and the Rhone.
la consequence of these inroads and conquests, the language of the Swiss
bere blended with that of the German dialect of the Western Suabes;
and the country received a new political constitution modelled upon that
of the German nations. Every warrior received a piece of ground in
fram from his chiet; one hundred of these farms constituted a cent;
a justice was administered among the freemen of each cent by a
jbare er enigrar, whose court or place of judgment was called the
TO Several cents formed a gou or county, of which the head officer
Vs the gner or count; and these counts held allegiance to a duke.
1: in she counts held their gaus during life only; but they afterwards
become becerary, and the counts yielded only such allegiance to the king
s sed her own parposes while they compelled the free inhabitants or i vecaire us to acknowledge them as their liege lords. In 4 c a ix a France, conquered the Alemanni ; and in 534 bis SIIS Sund wie Farrundians and reduced Helvetia to a province of the
S a la the division of Charlemagne's empire, which took Take
the Barrundian part of Helvetia fell to the lot of Lothar. mt zie Le
rart to that of Louis the German, who shorts Terris word the Barutan part also, under the name of Vinor Serrut * tis Hieretian territories. l'pon the death of Charles le (ras inond
a founded an independent kingdom of Minor Zarurt Di Exe de Mat of gurernment at Payerne or Peterlingen: TE te Lam . 1 of Helvetia continued subject to German sige. mu Te Ismai tr sie ezerur on she duke of Zahringen, who stier.
CONTENTS OF VOLUME SECOND.
CHAP. III. CLIMATE-SOIL AND AGRICULTURE
PRODUCTIONS FISHERIES-- MINERALS-COM.
CHAP. I. HISTORY-Early History, 2-Struggle
MERCE-MEASURES-Climate, 45% Soil and
Agriculture, 46-Animal Kingdom-Fish-
The Reformation, 5-Hel.
vetic Republic, 6-Recent Act of Confeder-
eries, 47-Minerals-Trade and Commerce,
48—Monies-Weights and Measures, 52.
CHAP. II. PHYSICAL FEATURES-CLIMATE-PRO.
CHAP. IV. POPULATION-MANNERS AND CUSTOMS
DUCTIONS.- AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY AND
-RELIGION-LITERATURE-STATE OF EDUCA-
TION-Population - The Dutch, 53—The Bel-
7-Table of Heights, 8-Glaciers, 9- Ava-
gians, 55-Religion, 56-Literature, 53%
lanches-Rivers, 10–Lakes, 11-Climate-
State of Education-Establishments for Edu-
Productions - Animals-Minerals, 12-Agri.
cation, 60— Fine Arts, 6).
culture and Rural Industry-Industry and
CHAP. V. GOVERNMENT-REVENUE-ARMED FORCE
Commerce, 13-Money, 14.
-Constitution and Government, 61-Re.
CUAP. III. POPULATION-MANNERS AND CUSTOMS
venue-Armed Force, 64.
CHAP. VI. TOPOGRAPHY-NORTHERN PROVINCES-
PROVINCE OF HOLLAND-Physical Features
Manners and Customs, 14Religion--Litera.
Climate and Productions- Population The
ture-Establishments for Education-Consti-
Hague, &c., 65—Leyden, 66–Rotterdam
Amsterdam, 67-Haerlem, 68.
CHAP. IV. THE CANTON OF ZURICH, 17.
CHAP. VII. THE PROVINCE OF FRIESLAND, 69.
CHAP. V. THE CANTON OF BERNE, 17.
CHAP. VIII. THE PROVINCE OF GRONINGEN, 69.
CHAP. VI. THE CANTON OF LUCERNE, 19.
CHAP. IX. THE PROVINCE OP DRENTHE, 70.
CHAP. VII. THE CANTON OP URI, 20.
CHAP. X. THE PROVINCE OF OVERYSSEL, 70.
CHAP. VIII. TIE CANTON OF SCHWEIZ, 21.
CHAP. XI. THE PROVINCE OF GUELDERLAND, 71.
CHAP. IX. TEE CANTON OF UNDERWALDEN, 2).
CHAP. XII. THE PROVINCE OF UTRECHT, 71.
CHAP. X. THE CANTON OF GLARUS, 21.
CHAP. XIII. THE PROVINCE OF ZEELAND, 72.
CHAP. XI. THE CANTON OF ZUG, 21.
CHAP. XIV. THE PROVINCE OF NORTH BRABANT, 73.
CHAP. XII. TUE CANTON OF FRYBURG, 22.
CHAP. XV. SOUTHERN PROVINCES-PROVINCE OF
CHAP. XII. THE CANTON OF EOLEURE, 22.
SOUTH BRABANT, 74-Brussels, 75.
CHAP. XIV. THE CANTON OF BASLE, 23.
CHAP. XVI. THE PROVINCE OF ANTWERP, 76-City
CHAP. XV. THE CANTON OF SCHAFFHAUSEN, 23.
of Antwerp, 77.
CHAP. XVI. THE CANTON OF APPENZELL, 24.
CAAP. XVII. THE PROVINCE OF EAST FLANDERS,
CHAP. XVII THE CANTON OF ST GALL, 24.
CHAP. XVIII. THE CANTON OF THE GRISONS, 21.
CHAP. XVIII. PROVINCE OF WEST FLANDERS, 79.
CHAP. XIX. THE CANTON OF AARGAU, 25.
CHAP. XIX. THE PROVINCE OF HAINAULT, 80.
CHAP. XX. THE CANTON OF THURGAU, 25.
CHAP. XX. THE PROVINCE OF NAMUR, 8).
CHAP. XXI. THE CANTON OF TESSINO, 25.
CHAP. XXI. THE PROVINCE OF LIEGE, 81.
CHAP. XXII. THE CANTON DE VAUD, 26.
CHAP. XXII. THE PROVINCE OF LIMBURG, 82.
CHAP. XXIII. THE CANTON OF VALAIS, 26.
CUAP. XXIII. THE PROVINCE OR GRAND DUCHY OF
CHAP. XXIV. THE CANTON OF NEUFCHATEL, 27. LUXEMBURG, 83.
CHAP. XXV. THE CANTON OF GENEVA, 28.
Boundaries and Extent, 30-Name-Divisions, 31. ' Name-Extent, 85.-Boundaries-.Progressive
CHAP. I. HISTORY-Early and Middle History, Geography-Roman Period, 86—The Franks
30-Philip II. Duke of Alva, 32-Duke of -The Capetian Dynasty, 87-Present Limits
Requesenes- Pacification of Ghent, 35-1 -Divisions, 88.
Union of Utrecht-Modern History-Bata. Cuap. J. HISTORY—The Gauls, 90—The Franks
vian Republic, 36–United Netherlands, 39. Clovis 1.-Childebert to Clotaire II. 91-
CHAP. U. PHYSICAL FEATURES-FORESTS-RIVERS Maires du Palais-Pepin the Short-Charle-
-LAKES-CANALS-SEA-DYKES, 39-Forests, magne-Louis I. or Le Debonnaire, 92-
40—Rivers--The Rhine-The Maese, 41-The Charles the Bald-Louis II. to Louis V. 93
Scheldt-Lakes, 42- Inland Navigation-
Hugh Capet-Robert-Henry I. 91Philip
Great Dutch Canal, 13~-Sea-Dykes. 44,
I.-Louis VI.-Louis VII. 95–Philip II. and
Louis VIII.--Saint Louis-Philip II. to I Charles III. 237-Charles IV. 239-Revoli
Charles IV. 96-Philip VI. 97-John le Bop, tion, 240 British Campaigns-Restoration of
98-Charles V.-Charles VI. 99-Louis XL-
Ferdinand, 241-Colonies, 242.
Charles VIII.-Louis XII.-Francis I. 101- Chap. 11. PHYSICAL Fe
Henry II. 102—Francis II.-Charles IX.-
The Huguenots- Massacre of St Bartholomew, -Iberian Chain-Sierra de Guadaloupe, 243
103—Henry III.-Henry le Grand, 105-
Sierra Morena-Sierra Nevada-Table of
Louis XIII.-Louis le Grand, 106-Louis Heights, 244-Rivers, 245—Canals-Lakes,
XV. 107-Louis XVI. 110_The Revolution, 246— Mineral Springs-Chimate, 247_Produc-
111-The Republic, 114–The Directory,115-
tions, 248-Minerals, 249.
The Consulate, 117-The Empire, 118_War CHAP. III. AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY-MANU.
with Prussia, 120-Spanish War, 122-War FACTURES AND COMMERCE-WEIGHTS AND
with Austria, 123-War with Russia, 124
MEASURES-Agriculture, 250- Manufactures
The Restoration of the Bourbons, 127-
Commerce, 252_Monies-Weights and
Charles X. 128.
CHAP. II. PHYSICAL FEATURES—B01L-MOUNTAINS CHAP. IV. POPULATION-MANNERS AND CUSTOMS
RELIGION-LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE-Po-
tains-The Cevennes, 131-The Vosges-- The
pulation, 251_Manners and Customs-Bull
Jura-The Alps-The Pyrenees, 132–Rivers,
Fights, 256-Religion-Language, 258-Li-
133—The Rhone-The Loire, 134-The Ga-
terature, 259-Establishments for Educa.
ronne - The Seine-Lakes-Canals, 135— tion, 262.
Canal of Languedoc-Capal of Briare-Canal | CHAP. V. GOVERNMENT-REVENUE-MILITARY AND
of Orleans, 136—Canal of St Quentin, 137.
MARINE FORCE-Government, 263-Revenue
-Military and Marine Force, 265.
MANUFACTURES AND COMMERCE-WEIGHTS AND | CHAP, VI. TOPOGRAPHY-KINGDOM OF CASTILE-
MEASURES-Climate, 137-Vegetable Zones, I. THE KINGDOM OF CASTILE-Province of Ma-
138—Temperature-State of the Atmosphere,
130— Winds-Productions- Horses- Mules,
140_Cattle-Sheep, 141-Goats and Poultry
-Wild Animals-Woodlands, 143-Fruit
lid-Zamora-Salamanca, 270— Asturias, 271
Trees, 144—Botany-Mineralogy, 145—Coal
-Galicia, 272-Estremadura-Seville, 273-
Fields, 146-Mineral Springs-State of Agri Gibraltar-Rock of Gibraltar, 275-Town of
culture before the Revolution, 148—Changes
Gibraltar-History, 276—Province of Cor.
at the Revolution, 150—Distribution of the
dova-Jaen, 280_Granada, 281 - Murcia, 285.
Soil-Rents, 151-Rotation of Crops, 152-
CHAP. VII. THE KINGDOM OF ARRAGON-Province
Horticulture—Vineyards, 154_Manufactures of Arragon-Town of Saragossa, 286—Pro-
-History of French Manufactures, 157
vince of Valencia, 289-Mallorca or Majorca-
-Woollen Manufactures Silk Manufactures,
Majorca-Minorca, 291-Ivica-Province of
161-Cotton Manufactures, 162-Patents-
Catalonia, 292-City of Barcelona–Gerona,
Commerce, 165-Monies-Weights and Mea 293_Tarragona-Chief Towns-Republic of
COAP. IV. POPULATION-NATIONAL CHARACTER-
CHAP. VIII. THE KINGDOM OF NAVARRE, 295.
LANGUAGE-LITERATURE-RELIGION, 168--Na. | CHAP. IX. THE BASKISH PROVINCES AND COLONIES,
tional Character, 170—State of Crime, 175
295_Province of Biscay or Vizcaya-Guipus.
Language, 176-Literature, 178—State of coa, 296_Alava, 297-Colonies, 298.
Education, 186-Universities-- Mechanics' In.
stitutions, 190—State of the Catholic Religion,
191-State of the Protestant Religion, 198. Name-Boundaries and Extent-Civil Divisions,
CHAP. V. GOVERNMENT-REVENUE-MILITARY AND 300.
MARINE FORCE, 201-Administration-Nobi.
CHAP. I. HISTORY-Early History-Middle His.
lity and Orders of Merit-Revenue, 203-
tory, 301--Modern History, 302--Recent
National Bank, 208-Military Force, 209– Events, 305.
Marine Force, 21).
CHAP. II. PHYSICAL FEATURES-CLIMATE-SOIL
CHAP. VI. CHIEF CITIES_Paris, 212-Lyons-
AND PRODUCTIONS- Physical Features.-
Bordeaux, 217-Marseilles-Toulon-Rouen Mountains--Capes, 307- Rivers-Lakes-
Strasburg-Brest-. Nanci-Versailles, 219.
CHAP. VII. FRENCH ISLANDS AND COLONIES_Hieres CHAP. II. INHABITANTSMANNERS AND CUSTOMS
-LANGUAGE-LITERATURE-RELIGION - Man.
-Corsica, 221-Colonies, 224.
ners and Customs, 310-Language and Liter.
ature, 313- Education, 315Religiou, 316.
CHAP IV. GOVERNMENT-REVENUE-MARINE AND
MILITARY FORCE-COMMERCE, 316_Laws-
Boundaries and Extent-Name, 226_Progressive Orders of Knighthood, 317-Church Govern.
ment-Revenue-Marine and Military Force,
CHAP. I. HISTORY-Historical Remarks, 228-
Visigothic Empire-Dominion of the Moors, CHAP. V. TOPOGRAPUY-ESTREMADURA, 320.
229_Ferdinand and Isabella-Establishment | CHAP. VI. THE PROVINCE OF BEIRA, 324.
of the Inquisition, 233-Charles I. 236-Philip Chap. VII. THE PROVINCE OF ENTRE DOURO B
11.-Philip III.-Philip IV.-Charles 11. to